Image ID: 9760
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Viola pedata
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-01-11
GENUS CODE: VIOLA GENUS SCIENTIFIC:Viola GENUS AUTHORITY: L. GENUS COMMON: Violet GENUS SUMMARY: [contributed by Bruce A. Sorrie, Harvey E. Ballard, Jr., and Alan S. Weakley] GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Viola has presented numerous problems in taxonomy, distribution, and identification. Particularly troublesome are the so-called “acaulescent blue violets”, including V. sororia, V. sagittata, V. palmata, V. septemloba, etc. They may be difficult to identify due to morphological overlap, or trying to key plants without mature leaves; in some instances hybridization may be suspect. Leaf maturity is an important feature to recognize–the earliest 1-2 leaves produced in most of these taxa are generally ovate-cordate in outline and may not display characteristic lobing, toothing, or pubescence until more mature leaves are produced, 1-2 weeks later. Specimens thus collected early in the flowering period can present the botanist with a perplexing series of plants that do not key cleanly. A second troublesome group contains the small white violets, including V. blanda, V. incognita, and V. macloskeyi. These taxa have been dealt with in various ways, but resist a wholly satisfactory treatment, due to apparent hybridization (Russell, 1954, Amer. J. Bot. 41: 679-85; Russell, 1955, Amer. Midl. Nat. 54: 481-94). However, recent reviews of these 3 species in the Southeast show that V. blanda and V. macloskeyi are quite distinct, with V. incognita less so (but this may be due to paucity of specimens from the area). A third difficult group contains V. appalachiensis, V. conspersa/labrodorica, and V. walteri. They have been treated recently by Ballard (1992, 1994) and McKinney & Russell (2002). Despite the problems present in the genus, the great majority of plants encountered in the field may be successfully keyed out, particularly by botanists working within an area of several counties. Violet species are usually quite faithful to one or a few plant community types, so once learned these habitats can be valuable indicators as to which species to expect. Botanists working in larger regions (state, floristic province), however, must be aware of increased morphological variation and potential hybridization. All species possess brownish or reddish nectar guide striae in the corolla throat; these are ignored in the key. Hairs of the corollathroat and on leaf surfaces are important key characters; several plants should be inspected with a 10× lens before deciding the character state. GENUS REFERENCES: Ballard (in prep.)=U; Ballard (1992)=Z; Ballard (1994); Gil-ad (1998)=Y; McKinney & Russell (2002)=X; Haines (2001)=V; McKinney (1992); Ballard & Wujek (1994); Russell (1955); Ballard, Sytsma, & Kowal (1999); Ballard, de Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014). Key adapted, in part, from Ballard (1992) and Ballard & Wujek (1994).
FAMILY CODE: VIOLAC FAMILY SCIENTIFIC:Violaceae FAMILY AUTHORITY: Batsch 1802 FAMILY COMMON: Violet Family FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 31 genera and 1100 species, herbs, shrubs, lianas, and trees, cosmopolitan in distribution, but especially diverse in the tropics. FAMILY REFERENCE: Ballard (in prep.); Wahlert et al. (2014); Paula-Souza & Ballard (2014); Ballard, Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014); McKinney & Russell (2002)=X.
INTRO:Erectperennial of dry rocky or sandy forests, woodlands, glades and road banks. STEMS: Stemless, with flowering stalk and leaves arising from a rhizome. LEAVES: Leaves basal,petiolate, 1-2 in. long, deeply palmatelydivided into 5-11 narrow lobes, which are often toothed at the tip; usually smooth. INFLORESCENCE: FLOWERS: Flowers solitary on slender stalks, blue-violet or lavender, 3/4-1 3/4 in. wide, bilaterally symmetric, with 5 wide-spreading petals, the lowest one largest and extending behind the flower in a blunt spur and bearing a white patch and dark veins. 5 conspicuous orange stamens project from the corolla throat. FRUITS:Fruit an ellipsoid capsul. COMMENTS: There are no closed, self-pollinating flowers in this Viola species. HEIGHT: 2-8 in. DURATION:
Alternate, Basal LEAF COMPLEXITY:
Simple LEAF RETENTION: FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
BLOOM TIME: Mar-Jun
BLOOM COLOR: Blue-violet, lavender
FRUITING PERIOD: May-Jun. DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Sandhills
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Viola pedata var. pedata
COMMON NAME: Bird's-foot Violet
SYNONYMY: [= Va, X; = V. pedata - C, Pa, U, W; < V. pedata - K, Mo, RAB, S, V; > V. pedata var. pedata - F, G, WV; > V. pedata var. lineariloba A.P. de Candolle - F, G, WV]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-May; May-Jun.
HABITAT: Dry rocky or sandy forests, woodlands, glades, and roadbanks.
COMMENTS: NH, NY, MI, WI, MN, and ND south to s. GA, s. AL, s. MS, s. LA, and e. TX.
RANGE MAP: Viola pedata var. pedata.png
Key to Map SymbolsABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora) Violaceae Batsch 1802 (Violet Family) SUMMARY: A family of about 31 genera and 1100 species, herbs, shrubs, lianas, and trees, cosmopolitan in distribution, but especially diverse in the tropics. REFERENCE: Ballard (in prep.); Wahlert et al. (2014); Paula-Souza & Ballard (2014); Ballard, Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014); McKinney & Russell (2002)=X.ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora) Viola L. (Violet) SUMMARY: [contributed by Bruce A. Sorrie, Harvey E. Ballard, Jr., and Alan S. Weakley] REFERENCE: Ballard (in prep.)=U; Ballard (1992)=Z; Ballard (1994); Gil-ad (1998)=Y; McKinney & Russell (2002)=X; Haines (2001)=V; McKinney (1992); Ballard & Wujek (1994); Russell (1955); Ballard, Sytsma, & Kowal (1999); Ballard, de Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014). Key adapted, in part, from Ballard (1992) and Ballard & Wujek (1994).
SERNEC: Find Viola pedata in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available) UNC SERNEC: Find Viola pedata in
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)