Plant Index


 
 
 

Viola pedata

Viola pedata L.

bird’s-foot violet, birdfoot violet

Viola pedata (Bird’s-foot Violet)
Image ID: 9760
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: VIPE
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Viola pedata
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-01-11

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: VIOLA
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Viola
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Violet
GENUS SUMMARY: [contributed by Bruce A. Sorrie, Harvey E. Ballard, Jr., and Alan S. Weakley]
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Viola has presented numerous problems in taxonomy, distribution, and identification. Particularly troublesome are the so-called “acaulescent blue violets”, including V. sororia, V. sagittata, V. palmata, V. septemloba, etc. They may be difficult to identify due to morphological overlap, or trying to key plants without mature leaves; in some instances hybridization may be suspect. Leaf maturity is an important feature to recognize–the earliest 1-2 leaves produced in most of these taxa are generally ovate-cordate in outline and may not display characteristic lobing, toothing, or pubescence until more mature leaves are produced, 1-2 weeks later. Specimens thus collected early in the flowering period can present the botanist with a perplexing series of plants that do not key cleanly. A second troublesome group contains the small white violets, including V. blanda, V. incognita, and V. macloskeyi. These taxa have been dealt with in various ways, but resist a wholly satisfactory treatment, due to apparent hybridization (Russell, 1954, Amer. J. Bot. 41: 679-85; Russell, 1955, Amer. Midl. Nat. 54: 481-94). However, recent reviews of these 3 species in the Southeast show that V. blanda and V. macloskeyi are quite distinct, with V. incognita less so (but this may be due to paucity of specimens from the area). A third difficult group contains V. appalachiensis, V. conspersa/labrodorica, and V. walteri. They have been treated recently by Ballard (1992, 1994) and McKinney & Russell (2002). Despite the problems present in the genus, the great majority of plants encountered in the field may be successfully keyed out, particularly by botanists working within an area of several counties. Violet species are usually quite faithful to one or a few plant community types, so once learned these habitats can be valuable indicators as to which species to expect. Botanists working in larger regions (state, floristic province), however, must be aware of increased morphological variation and potential hybridization. All species possess brownish or reddish nectar guide striae in the corolla throat; these are ignored in the key. Hairs of the corolla throat and on leaf surfaces are important key characters; several plants should be inspected with a 10× lens before deciding the character state.
GENUS REFERENCES: Ballard (in prep.)=U; Ballard (1992)=Z; Ballard (1994); Gil-ad (1998)=Y; McKinney & Russell (2002)=X; Haines (2001)=V; McKinney (1992); Ballard & Wujek (1994); Russell (1955); Ballard, Sytsma, & Kowal (1999); Ballard, de Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014). Key adapted, in part, from Ballard (1992) and Ballard & Wujek (1994).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: VIOLAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Violaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Batsch 1802
FAMILY COMMON: Violet Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 31 genera and 1100 species, herbs, shrubs, lianas, and trees, cosmopolitan in distribution, but especially diverse in the tropics.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Ballard (in prep.); Wahlert et al. (2014); Paula-Souza & Ballard (2014); Ballard, Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014); McKinney & Russell (2002)=X.

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial of dry rocky or sandy forests, woodlands, glades and road banks.
STEMS: Stemless, with flowering stalk and leaves arising from a rhizome.
LEAVES: Leaves basal, petiolate, 1-2 in. long, deeply palmately divided into 5-11 narrow lobes, which are often toothed at the tip; usually smooth.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers solitary on slender stalks, blue-violet or lavender, 3/4-1 3/4 in. wide, bilaterally symmetric, with 5 wide-spreading petals, the lowest one largest and extending behind the flower in a blunt spur and bearing a white patch and dark veins. 5 conspicuous orange stamens project from the corolla throat.
FRUITS: Fruit an ellipsoid capsul.
COMMENTS: There are no closed, self-pollinating flowers in this Viola species.
HEIGHT: 2-8 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate, Basal
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Bilateral (Zygomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Mar-Jun
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Blue-violet, lavender
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD: May-Jun.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Sandhills
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE:
LIGHT EXPOSURE:
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
262 2011-0104 2011-05-05 267 View
1439 1986-1219 View
2241 1986-2063 View
4773 1993-0063 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
267 HORT 2009-05-25 Poythress View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
630 262 107 Liloia 2011-04-07 View
631 262 16 Neal 2011-11-20 View
633 262 107 Liloia 2011-12-07 View
2517 1439 91 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3907 2241 59 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
3908 2241 57 NCBG staff 1986-12-23 View
7140 4773 11 NCBG staff 1993-05-21 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: VIPE
USDA Common Name: Birdfoot Violet
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV), CAN (ON)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU UPL UPL UPL

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Viola pedata var. pedata
COMMON NAME: Bird's-foot Violet
SYNONYMY: [= Va, X; = V. pedata - C, Pa, U, W; < V. pedata - K, Mo, RAB, S, V; > V. pedata var. pedata - F, G, WV; > V. pedata var. lineariloba A.P. de Candolle - F, G, WV]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-May; May-Jun.
HABITAT: Dry rocky or sandy forests, woodlands, glades, and roadbanks.
COMMENTS: NH, NY, MI, WI, MN, and ND south to s. GA, s. AL, s. MS, s. LA, and e. TX.
RANGE MAP: Viola pedata var. pedata.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Violaceae Batsch 1802 (Violet Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 31 genera and 1100 species, herbs, shrubs, lianas, and trees, cosmopolitan in distribution, but especially diverse in the tropics.
REFERENCE: Ballard (in prep.); Wahlert et al. (2014); Paula-Souza & Ballard (2014); Ballard, Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014); McKinney & Russell (2002)=X.
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Viola L. (Violet)
SUMMARY: [contributed by Bruce A. Sorrie, Harvey E. Ballard, Jr., and Alan S. Weakley]
REFERENCE: Ballard (in prep.)=U; Ballard (1992)=Z; Ballard (1994); Gil-ad (1998)=Y; McKinney & Russell (2002)=X; Haines (2001)=V; McKinney (1992); Ballard & Wujek (1994); Russell (1955); Ballard, Sytsma, & Kowal (1999); Ballard, de Paula-Souza, & Wahlert in Kubitzki (2014). Key adapted, in part, from Ballard (1992) and Ballard & Wujek (1994).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Viola pedata in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Viola pedata in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Viola pedata in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Viola pedata in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Viola pedata in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Viola pedata

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 9760
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 9759

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