Plant Index


 
 
 

Vaccinium stamineum

Vaccinium stamineum L.

common deerberry

Synonym(s): Polycodium ashei, Polycodium candicans, Polycodium depressum, Polycodium floridanum, Polycodium leptosepalum, Polycodium macilentum, Polycodium melanocarpum, Polycodium neglectum, Polycodium stamineum
Vaccinium stamineum (Common Deerberry)
Image ID: 18040
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: VAST
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Vaccinium stamineum
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-01-11

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: VACCI
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Vaccinium
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Blueberry
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 140 species, shrubs, lianes, and small trees, semicosmopolitan. Vaccinium in our area is divided into 6 strongly differentiated sections, sometimes, as by Small, treated as separate genera. The taxonomy of Vaccinium remains unclear – past divergence of opinion is obvious in the synonymy. For instance, Small (1933) recognizes 6 genera and 25 species for our area, Ahles in RAB (1968) recognizes 1 genus and 14 species (one with 2 varieties) (not including VA), and Vander Kloet (1988) recognizes 1 genus and 9 species. The highbush blueberries of section Cyanococcus are particularly difficult. Vander Kloets extremely broad concept of the highbush blueberries as consisting of a single species, V. corymbosum, including V. fuscatum (V. atrococcum – RAB), V. simulatum (V. constablaei – RAB), V. virgatum (V. amoenum – RAB), V. elliottii, V. formosum (V. australe), and V. caesariense (and many other named taxa not recognized here) has been adopted by some recent authors, at least partly for its ease of application. I agree with Godfrey (1988), though, that V. elliottii has such distinctiveness as to be recognizable in the field at a glance. The other taxa are less easily recognizable, but seem to have substantial morphological and phytogeographic integrity. The fairly frequent presence of hybrid individuals and populations can make identification frustrating, but I agree with Ward (1974) that the genus Vaccinium ... is difficult but not in any way an irresolvable tangle of intergrading populations. The vast bulk of individuals encountered in the field may be assigned, as with any non-apomict genus, to a relatively few, discrete, and wholly recognizable species. Many of the taxa included in V. corymbosum by Vander Kloet (1988) and Luteyn et al. (1996) occur together in combinations of two to four, are immediately recognizable in the field, bloom at different times, and have different flower, fruit, and leaf morphology. Failure to recognize multiple entities within the highbush blueberries results in the taxonomic homogenization of the diversity of the group and obscures important phytogeographic patterns. Our area, with 20 species (24 taxa) in 6 sections, has a greater diversity of Vaccinium than any other comparably sized area in North America.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Vander Kloet (1988)=Z; Uttal (1987)=Y; Camp (1945)=X; Ashe (1931)=V; Ward (1974)=Q; Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Vander Kloet in FNA (2009); Vander Kloet & Hall (1981); Vander Kloet (1977, 1978a, 1978b, 1980, 1982, 1983a, 1983b); Uttal (1986a, 1986b); Smith et al. (2015)=D; Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004). Key based in part on Uttal (1987).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ERICAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Ericaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Heath Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS: Common throughout the southeast, this shrub can reach six feet tall in the dry open woods where it prefers to grow. Deerberry belongs to the blueberry genus, but does not display the tubular, urn-shaped flower structure typical of this group of plants. The flowers of this Vaccinium have petals that spread wide, exposing conspicuous yellow stamens. When the fruit appears in late summer, it is eaten by ruffed grouse, bobwhite and gray fox. Deerberry fruit can also be a source of food for humans-it is stewed and sweetened and is said to be best when served cold.
HEIGHT: 6 feet tall and wide

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub

LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Apr-Jun
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: White flowers
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD: Aug-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE:
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States & Mexico

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Easy to recognize in the woods of NC when in flower, small nodding white bells have stamens that extend well beyond the flower face. The average green leaves often are whitish underneath. Maturing plants will present twisted stems with peeling reddish-brown bark. The habit is open, plants are as wide as tall. The mature berries are most often green and more palatable to the deer than other more articulate garden visitors. Well drained soil in an open location is best. Look for the flowers about the same time as the leaves.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Well-drained
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 4
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
328 2011-0195 2011-09-02 332 View
3153 1989-0118 View
3741 1991-0436 View
4570 1992-0726 View
5006 1995-0125 View
5215 1995-0334 View
6366 1995-1498 View
7111 1999-0069 1999-08-10 View
7480 2000-0237 2000-05-31 View
9239 2019-0001 2019-01-04 1960 View
9301 2020-0030 2020-11-20 2068 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
332 HORT 2009-01-01 Poythress View
1960 HORT 2019-01-03 Liloia View
2068 HORT 2019-06-01 Liloia View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
775 328 102 Liloia 2011-12-06 View
776 328 15 NCBG staff 2011-11-20 View
777 328 14 Liloia 2013-03-21 View
5292 3153 11 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6048 3741 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6899 4570 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7425 5006 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7668 5215 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
9021 6366 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10047 7111 173 NCBG staff 1999-03-01 View
10499 7480 177 NCBG staff 2000-04-26 View
12358 9239 14 Liloia 2019-01-03 View
12434 9301 21 Liloia 2020-11-05 View
12435 9301 15 Liloia 2020-11-05 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: VAST
USDA Common Name: Deerberry
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV), CAN (ON)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Vaccinium stamineum var. stamineum
COMMON NAME: Common Deerberry
SYNONYMY: [= Q; < Vaccinium stamineum - C, FNA, K, L, Pa, Va, W, WH3, .Y, Z; > V. stamineum var. stamineum - F, WV; > V. stamineum var. interius (W.W. Ashe) Palmer & Steyermark - F, WV; > V. stamineum var. neglectum (Small) Deam - F, WV; > Vaccinium neglectum (Small) Fernald - G; < V. stamineum var. stamineum - RAB; > Polycodium stamineum (Linnaeus) Greene - S, V; >< Polycodium candicans Small - S; > Polycodium neglectum Small - S, V]
PHENOLOGY: Apr-Jun; Aug-Oct.
HABITAT: Xeric to submesic woodlands, forests, and rock outcrops (unlike most Vaccinium, often on mafic, ultramafic, or calcareous rocks).
COMMENTS: MA, NY, s. ON, and MO south to Panhandle FL and TX.
RANGE MAP: Vaccinium stamineum var. stamineum.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ericaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Heath Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Vaccinium L. (Blueberry)
SUMMARY: A genus of 140 species, shrubs, lianes, and small trees, semicosmopolitan. Vaccinium in our area is divided into 6 strongly differentiated sections, sometimes, as by Small, treated as separate genera. The taxonomy of Vaccinium remains unclear – past divergence of opinion is obvious in the synonymy. For instance, Small (1933) recognizes 6 genera and 25 species for our area, Ahles in RAB (1968) recognizes 1 genus and 14 species (one with 2 varieties) (not including VA), and Vander Kloet (1988) recognizes 1 genus and 9 species. The highbush blueberries of section Cyanococcus are particularly difficult. Vander Kloets extremely broad concept of the highbush blueberries as consisting of a single species, V. corymbosum, including V. fuscatum (V. atrococcum – RAB), V. simulatum (V. constablaei – RAB), V. virgatum (V. amoenum – RAB), V. elliottii, V. formosum (V. australe), and V. caesariense (and many other named taxa not recognized here) has been adopted by some recent authors, at least partly for its ease of application. I agree with Godfrey (1988), though, that V. elliottii has such distinctiveness as to be recognizable in the field at a glance. The other taxa are less easily recognizable, but seem to have substantial morphological and phytogeographic integrity. The fairly frequent presence of hybrid individuals and populations can make identification frustrating, but I agree with Ward (1974) that the genus Vaccinium ... is difficult but not in any way an irresolvable tangle of intergrading populations. The vast bulk of individuals encountered in the field may be assigned, as with any non-apomict genus, to a relatively few, discrete, and wholly recognizable species. Many of the taxa included in V. corymbosum by Vander Kloet (1988) and Luteyn et al. (1996) occur together in combinations of two to four, are immediately recognizable in the field, bloom at different times, and have different flower, fruit, and leaf morphology. Failure to recognize multiple entities within the highbush blueberries results in the taxonomic homogenization of the diversity of the group and obscures important phytogeographic patterns. Our area, with 20 species (24 taxa) in 6 sections, has a greater diversity of Vaccinium than any other comparably sized area in North America.
REFERENCE: Vander Kloet (1988)=Z; Uttal (1987)=Y; Camp (1945)=X; Ashe (1931)=V; Ward (1974)=Q; Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Vander Kloet in FNA (2009); Vander Kloet & Hall (1981); Vander Kloet (1977, 1978a, 1978b, 1980, 1982, 1983a, 1983b); Uttal (1986a, 1986b); Smith et al. (2015)=D; Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004). Key based in part on Uttal (1987).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Vaccinium stamineum in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Vaccinium stamineum in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Vaccinium stamineum in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Vaccinium stamineum in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Vaccinium stamineum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Vaccinium stamineum

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 18040
ID IMAGE2: 7500
ID IMAGE3: 5126

From the Image Gallery


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Image ID: 12173
10 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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