Plant Index


 
 
 

Vaccinium arboreum

Vaccinium arboreum Marshall

sparkleberry, farkleberry

Synonym(s): Batodendron andrachniforme, Batodendron arboreum
Vaccinium arboreum (Sparkleberry)
Image ID: 12804
Image by: Cressler, Alan M.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: VAAR
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Vaccinium arboreum
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2017-01-01

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: VACCI
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Vaccinium
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Blueberry
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 140 species, shrubs, lianes, and small trees, semicosmopolitan. Vaccinium in our area is divided into 6 strongly differentiated sections, sometimes, as by Small, treated as separate genera. The taxonomy of Vaccinium remains unclear – past divergence of opinion is obvious in the synonymy. For instance, Small (1933) recognizes 6 genera and 25 species for our area, Ahles in RAB (1968) recognizes 1 genus and 14 species (one with 2 varieties) (not including VA), and Vander Kloet (1988) recognizes 1 genus and 9 species. The highbush blueberries of section Cyanococcus are particularly difficult. Vander Kloets extremely broad concept of the highbush blueberries as consisting of a single species, V. corymbosum, including V. fuscatum (V. atrococcum – RAB), V. simulatum (V. constablaei – RAB), V. virgatum (V. amoenum – RAB), V. elliottii, V. formosum (V. australe), and V. caesariense (and many other named taxa not recognized here) has been adopted by some recent authors, at least partly for its ease of application. I agree with Godfrey (1988), though, that V. elliottii has such distinctiveness as to be recognizable in the field at a glance. The other taxa are less easily recognizable, but seem to have substantial morphological and phytogeographic integrity. The fairly frequent presence of hybrid individuals and populations can make identification frustrating, but I agree with Ward (1974) that the genus Vaccinium ... is difficult but not in any way an irresolvable tangle of intergrading populations. The vast bulk of individuals encountered in the field may be assigned, as with any non-apomict genus, to a relatively few, discrete, and wholly recognizable species. Many of the taxa included in V. corymbosum by Vander Kloet (1988) and Luteyn et al. (1996) occur together in combinations of two to four, are immediately recognizable in the field, bloom at different times, and have different flower, fruit, and leaf morphology. Failure to recognize multiple entities within the highbush blueberries results in the taxonomic homogenization of the diversity of the group and obscures important phytogeographic patterns. Our area, with 20 species (24 taxa) in 6 sections, has a greater diversity of Vaccinium than any other comparably sized area in North America.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Vander Kloet (1988)=Z; Uttal (1987)=Y; Camp (1945)=X; Ashe (1931)=V; Ward (1974)=Q; Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Vander Kloet in FNA (2009); Vander Kloet & Hall (1981); Vander Kloet (1977, 1978a, 1978b, 1980, 1982, 1983a, 1983b); Uttal (1986a, 1986b); Smith et al. (2015)=D; Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004). Key based in part on Uttal (1987).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ERICAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Ericaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Heath Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 15 feet x 15 feet

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub, Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous, Evergreen

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Late Apr-Jun
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: White flowers in spring
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE:
NATIVE RANGE: southeastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Farkle?? Yep, this truly American word was first scribed in the 1760s and not even Google knows what it means. That said, the farkleberry shrub is a major understory player in the eastern deciduous forest. Small white flowers in spring arrive with the bright green leaves. They mature into Ā¼ā€¯ glossy black fruits. Fall color can be vivid crimson. The bark exfoliates with age, adding that desirable added interest that garden designers go on about. This plant is tough as nails, drought and heat tolerant once established.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 7
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
218 2011-0044 2011-03-04 217 View
352 2011-0224 2011-11-04 356 View
3739 1991-0434 View
3927 1992-0080 View
4568 1992-0724 View
4876 1994-0094 View
6362 1995-1494 View
6741 1996-0399 View
6906 1998-0113 View
7110 1999-0068 1999-08-10 View
7408 2000-0151 2000-04-06 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
217 HORT NCBG staff View
356 HORT 2006-11-16 Walker View
1480 HORT 2006-11-16 Walker View
1557 HORT 2005-03-08 Bryan View
1847 HORT Walker View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
443 218 12 NCBG staff 2011-03-18 View
444 218 100 NCBG staff 2011-03-18 View
445 218 103 NCBG staff 2011-03-18 View
856 352 23 Steen 2011-11-03 View
6046 3739 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6251 3927 59 Liloia 1967-12-31 View
6897 4568 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7286 4876 53 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
9017 6362 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9516 6741 142 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
9769 6906 160 NCBG staff 1998-02-27 View
10046 7110 173 NCBG staff 1967-12-01 View
10404 7408 171 NCBG staff 2000-04-03 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: VAAR
USDA Common Name: Farkleberry
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Vaccinium arboreum
COMMON NAME: Farkleberry, Sparkleberry
SYNONYMY: [= C, FNA, G, K, L, RAB, Va, W, WH3, Y, Z; > V. arboreum var. arboreum - F, Il; > V. arboreum var. glaucescens (Greene) Sargent - F, Il; = Batodendron arboreum (Marshall) Nuttall - S]
PHENOLOGY: Late Apr-Jun; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Rocky or sandy woodlands, bluffs, and cliffs, usually xeric and often fire-maintained, and unlike most other Vaccinium, often on mafic, ultramafic, or calcareous rocks.
COMMENTS: This species is widely distributed in se. North America, from TX and FL north to MO, IN, KY, and VA. It can be a small tree, to 35 cm DBH and 10 m tall. The leaves are coriaceous and semi-evergreen, often being retained for much or all of the winter, especially in the southern part of our area. Var. glaucescens (Greene) Sargent may be worthy of recognition; it differs from var. arborescens in its subglaucous to conspicuously blue-green (vs. dark green) leaves and the bracts at the base of the pedicels nearly equal in size and shape to the leaves (vs. bracts distinctly smaller and often also different in shape than the leaves).
RANGE MAP: Vaccinium arboreum.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ericaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Heath Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Vaccinium L. (Blueberry)
SUMMARY: A genus of 140 species, shrubs, lianes, and small trees, semicosmopolitan. Vaccinium in our area is divided into 6 strongly differentiated sections, sometimes, as by Small, treated as separate genera. The taxonomy of Vaccinium remains unclear – past divergence of opinion is obvious in the synonymy. For instance, Small (1933) recognizes 6 genera and 25 species for our area, Ahles in RAB (1968) recognizes 1 genus and 14 species (one with 2 varieties) (not including VA), and Vander Kloet (1988) recognizes 1 genus and 9 species. The highbush blueberries of section Cyanococcus are particularly difficult. Vander Kloets extremely broad concept of the highbush blueberries as consisting of a single species, V. corymbosum, including V. fuscatum (V. atrococcum – RAB), V. simulatum (V. constablaei – RAB), V. virgatum (V. amoenum – RAB), V. elliottii, V. formosum (V. australe), and V. caesariense (and many other named taxa not recognized here) has been adopted by some recent authors, at least partly for its ease of application. I agree with Godfrey (1988), though, that V. elliottii has such distinctiveness as to be recognizable in the field at a glance. The other taxa are less easily recognizable, but seem to have substantial morphological and phytogeographic integrity. The fairly frequent presence of hybrid individuals and populations can make identification frustrating, but I agree with Ward (1974) that the genus Vaccinium ... is difficult but not in any way an irresolvable tangle of intergrading populations. The vast bulk of individuals encountered in the field may be assigned, as with any non-apomict genus, to a relatively few, discrete, and wholly recognizable species. Many of the taxa included in V. corymbosum by Vander Kloet (1988) and Luteyn et al. (1996) occur together in combinations of two to four, are immediately recognizable in the field, bloom at different times, and have different flower, fruit, and leaf morphology. Failure to recognize multiple entities within the highbush blueberries results in the taxonomic homogenization of the diversity of the group and obscures important phytogeographic patterns. Our area, with 20 species (24 taxa) in 6 sections, has a greater diversity of Vaccinium than any other comparably sized area in North America.
REFERENCE: Vander Kloet (1988)=Z; Uttal (1987)=Y; Camp (1945)=X; Ashe (1931)=V; Ward (1974)=Q; Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Vander Kloet in FNA (2009); Vander Kloet & Hall (1981); Vander Kloet (1977, 1978a, 1978b, 1980, 1982, 1983a, 1983b); Uttal (1986a, 1986b); Smith et al. (2015)=D; Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004). Key based in part on Uttal (1987).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Vaccinium arboreum in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Vaccinium arboreum in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Vaccinium arboreum in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Vaccinium arboreum in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Vaccinium arboreum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Vaccinium arboreum

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 12804
ID IMAGE2: 18002
ID IMAGE3: 12804

From the Image Gallery


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Image ID: 18001
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