Plant Index


 
 
 

Tsuga canadensis

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière

eastern hemlock, canada hemlock

Cultivar(s): Cole's Prostrate, Gensch's White Tip, Jacqueline Verkade, Jervis, Julian Potts, Minima, Nana, Nana Gracilis, Stewarts Dwarf
Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock)
Image ID: 17948
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: TSCA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Tsuga canadensis
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-09-25

CULTIVAR INDEX

Cult_id Cultivar_name Action
1635 Cole's Prostrate View
1636 Gensch's White Tip View
1637 Jacqueline Verkade View
1638 Jervis View
1639 Julian Potts View
1640 Minima View
1641 Nana View
1642 Nana Gracilis View
1643 Stewarts Dwarf View

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: TSUGA
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Tsuga
GENUS AUTHORITY: Carrière
GENUS COMMON: Hemlock
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 14 species, trees, of e. Asia (China, Japan, and Taiwan), e. North America, and w. North America.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Taylor in FNA (1993b); Page in Kramer & Green (1990).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: PINACE
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Pinaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Sprengel ex F. Rudolphi 1830
FAMILY COMMON: Pine Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 12 genera and about 220 species, trees and shrubs, almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Thieret in FNA (1993b); Price (1989)=Z; Page in Kramer & Green (1990).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: This graceful, evergreen tree grows in the eastern United States and northward into Canada. In the south, the native range is largely restricted to the Appalachian Mountains. There are some notable exceptions, such as Hemlock Bluff, near Raleigh, NC. These isolated populations in the warmer Piedmont are thought to be relics of Ice-age plant distribution patterns, which reflect a much colder climate. Populations throughout the eastern United States are now being decimated by the introduced Wooly Adelgid. These trees provide valuable shelter for many birds. Pine Siskins and Chickadees will spend hours feeding on the seeds from the small cones.
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 60 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Evergreen

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Mar-Apr
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Nov.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE:
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Eastern hemlock is a delicately-textured conifer that makes a fine specimen tree. It can also provide effective screening. This species is found growing in moist woodlands from the Southern Appalachians north to Canada. Tiny ½-inch cones are attractive on its evergreen branches during the fall and winter. Chickadees eat the seeds from the cones of this species. The Cherokee tribe used the outer bark to make a rosy-tan dye, and its inner bark for weaving baskets. The genus Tsuga supports up to 89 lepidoptera species.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet, Well-drained
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 4
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 8
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
579 1985-0210 View
580 1985-0211 View
581 1985-0213 View
582 1985-0214 View
583 1985-0215 View
584 1985-0216 View
585 1985-0217 View
586 1985-0218 View
587 1985-0219 View
1431 1986-1211 View
1432 1986-1212 View
2500 1986-2358 View
2501 1986-2359 View
3073 1989-0023 View
3300 1990-0161 View
3800 1991-0495 View
4771 1993-0059 View
6356 1995-1488 View
6413 1996-0029 View
6516 1996-0142 View
7311 2000-0048 2000-02-16 View
7634 2000-0397 2006-11-28 View
8007 2004-0015 View



GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1222 579 178 NCBG staff 2002-12-01 View
1223 579 153 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1224 580 166 NCBG staff 1978-11-09 View
1225 581 177 NCBG staff 1981-04-26 View
1226 582 161 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1227 583 166 NCBG staff 1978-11-09 View
1228 584 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1229 584 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1230 584 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1231 584 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1232 585 172 NCBG staff 1982-02-16 View
1233 586 166 NCBG staff 1982-02-16 View
1234 587 177 NCBG staff 1981-11-18 View
2505 1431 94 NCBG staff 2006-10-12 View
2506 1432 81 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
4247 2500 130 NCBG staff 1976-03-01 View
4248 2500 139 NCBG staff 1976-03-01 View
4249 2501 60 NCBG staff 1986-01-01 View
4250 2501 67 NCBG staff 1986-01-01 View
4251 2501 1 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
4252 2501 113 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
4253 2501 138 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
4254 2501 112 NCBG staff 1985-03-01 View
4255 2501 1 NCBG staff 1991-04-04 View
4256 2501 11 NCBG staff 1967-12-01 View
5098 3073 166 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5479 3300 187 NCBG staff 1970-10-01 View
5480 3300 188 NCBG staff 1970-10-01 View
6109 3800 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
7135 4771 1 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
7136 4771 71 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9011 6356 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9069 6413 166 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9212 6516 82 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10280 7311 187 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
10804 7634 83 NCBG staff 2002-01-01 View
10805 7634 81 NCBG staff 2002-01-01 View
11255 8007 153 NCBG staff 2003-04-08 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: TSCA
USDA Common Name: Eastern Hemlock
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, CT, DC, DE, GA, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (NB, NS, ON, PE, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

2018 Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species of North Carolina

NHP IDS RANKROUNDED S RANKG RANKROUNDED G RANKSTATE STATUSFEDERAL STATUS
18995 S4S5 S4 G5 G5 W5

This information is derived from the 2018 North Carolina Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species.

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Tsuga canadensis
COMMON NAME: Eastern Hemlock, Canada Hemlock
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, K, Pa, RAB, S, Tn, Va, W, WV, Z]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-Apr; Sep-Nov.
HABITAT: In a wide variety of habitats in the mountains, most typically and abundantly in moist sites in ravines or coves along streams, but likely to be found in all but the driest habitats between 300 and 1500 m (even occurring in peaty bogs, where it has a sickly yellow color and short life expectancy); in the western Piedmont of NC limited to progressively rarer microhabitats (primarily north-facing river bluffs), reaching its eastward limit in NC at a disjunct stand at Hemlock Bluff State Natural Area, Wake County (but uncommon in the Piedmont of VA and even present, though rare, in the Coastal Plain of VA).
COMMENTS: Widespread in ne. North America, south to w. and c. VA, w. and (rarely) c. NC, nw. SC, n. GA, n. AL, TN, KY, IN, WI, and MN. One of the largest trees commonly encountered nowadays in our area, but probably not naturally larger than many other trees because of its low timber value, it was often left by loggers. The hemlock woolly adelgic is severely affecting this species.
RANGE MAP: Tsuga canadensis.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Pinaceae Sprengel ex F. Rudolphi 1830 (Pine Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 12 genera and about 220 species, trees and shrubs, almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere.
REFERENCE: Thieret in FNA (1993b); Price (1989)=Z; Page in Kramer & Green (1990).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Tsuga Carrière (Hemlock)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 14 species, trees, of e. Asia (China, Japan, and Taiwan), e. North America, and w. North America.
REFERENCE: Taylor in FNA (1993b); Page in Kramer & Green (1990).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Tsuga canadensis in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Tsuga canadensis in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Tsuga canadensis in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Tsuga canadensis in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Tsuga canadensis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Tsuga canadensis

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 17948
ID IMAGE2: 17949
ID IMAGE3: 17948

From the Image Gallery


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15 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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