Plant Index


 
 
 

Tipularia discolor

Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt.

cranefly orchid, crippled cranefly

Tipularia discolor (Cranefly Orchid)
Image ID: 9656
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: TIDI
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Tipularia discolor
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-01-10

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: TIPUL
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Tipularia
GENUS AUTHORITY: Nutt.
GENUS COMMON: Tipularia
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 3 species; the other species of the genus are e. Asian (1 in Japan and 1 in the Himalayas) (Catling & Sheviak in FNA 2002).
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: The leaves are present during the winter, withering before the flowering stalk appears, the plant thus occasionally mistaken for one of the saprophytic orchids. The leaves are usually purple underneath, a characteristic shared with Aplectrum, but Tipularia leaf blades are ovate, < 10 cm long, and are not notably plicate along the veins (vs. Aplectrum, with leaf blades narrowly elliptic, 10-20 cm long, and notably plicate along the very prominent, white, cartilaginous veins).
GENUS REFERENCES: Catling & Sheviak in FNA (2002a); Correll (1950)=X.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ORCHID
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Orchidaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Orchid Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 800 genera and 19,000 species, perennial (rarely annual), mycotrophic herbs and vines (many epiphytic).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Luer (1972) and Luer (1975)=L; Correll (1950)=X; Romero-GonzŠlez, FernŠndez-Concha, Dressler, Magrath, & Argus in FNA (Williams & Williams (1983); Brown (2003); Homoya (1993); Correll (1937); Pridgeon et al. (1999a, 1999b, 1999c).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial found in moist to fairly dry forests.
STEMS: Stem consists of a bronze-purple, smooth, naked flowering scape arising from a corm after leaves have withered.
LEAVES: Leaves (2-5) in a basal cluster, arising in winter without the flowering stalk; oval-elliptic, to 4 in. long, lightly pleated, dull green with purple bumps above and glossy purple beneath.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers 20-40 on an elongated raceme terminating the scape, greenish-yellow to bronze or purple, about 1 in. long and drooping, bilaterally symmetric, consisting of 5 oblong-oval sepals and an ornate fused-petal structure with a 3-lobed lower lip and nectar spur.
FRUITS: Fruit an oval capsule held closely parallel to the scape.
COMMENTS: Pollinated by nocturnal moths, the flower is reminiscent of a cranefly. Like all orchids, it needs fungal (mycorrhizal) associates to germinate and grow--apparently those found in rotting wood.
HEIGHT: 4-20 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Basal
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Bilateral (Zygomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Jun-Sep
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Greenish-yellow to bronze and purple
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
261 2011-0103 2011-05-04 266 View
2442 1986-2283 View
4190 1992-0346 View
5001 1995-0120 View
5207 1995-0326 View
5726 1995-0852 View
6346 1995-1478 View
6778 1996-0443 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
266 HORT 2005-01-01 Randall View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
627 261 25 NCBG staff 2011-04-07 View
628 261 12 Liloia 2011-10-10 View
629 261 24 Liloia 2012-10-05 View
4150 2442 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
6518 4190 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7420 5001 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7660 5207 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8240 5726 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
9001 6346 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9587 6778 8 NCBG staff 1996-12-16 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: TIDI
USDA Common Name: Crippled Cranefly
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FAC FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Tipularia discolor
COMMON NAME: Cranefly Orchid
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, K, L, Pa, RAB, Tn, Va, W, WH3, WV, X; = T. unifolia (Muhlenberg) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenburg - S]
PHENOLOGY: Jul-Sep.
HABITAT: In a wide variety of mesic to rather dry forests.
COMMENTS: Se. MA, s. NY, OH, IN, and s. MI south to n. peninsular FL and TX. Along with Goodyera pubescens, Tipularia is one of the commonest orchids in e. North America.
RANGE MAP: Tipularia discolor.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Orchidaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Orchid Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 800 genera and 19,000 species, perennial (rarely annual), mycotrophic herbs and vines (many epiphytic).
REFERENCE: Luer (1972) and Luer (1975)=L; Correll (1950)=X; Romero-GonzŠlez, FernŠndez-Concha, Dressler, Magrath, & Argus in FNA (Williams & Williams (1983); Brown (2003); Homoya (1993); Correll (1937); Pridgeon et al. (1999a, 1999b, 1999c).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Tipularia Nutt. (Tipularia)
SUMMARY: A genus of 3 species; the other species of the genus are e. Asian (1 in Japan and 1 in the Himalayas) (Catling & Sheviak in FNA 2002).
REFERENCE: Catling & Sheviak in FNA (2002a); Correll (1950)=X.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Tipularia discolor in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Tipularia discolor in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Tipularia discolor in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Tipularia discolor in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Tipularia discolor in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Tipularia discolor

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 9656
ID IMAGE2: 17818
ID IMAGE3: 21914

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