Plant Index


 
 
 
 

Salix nigra

Salix nigra Marshall

black willow

Synonym(s): Salix ambigua, Salix denudata, Salix dubia, Salix falcata, Salix flavovirens, Salix ligustrina, Salix ludoviciana, Salix nigra var. altissima, Salix nigra var. brevifolia, Salix nigra var. brevijulis, Salix nigra var. falcata, Salix nigra var. lindheimeri, Salix nigra var. longifolia, Salix nigra var. marginata, Salix purshiana
Salix nigra (Black Willow)
Image ID: 17036
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: SANI
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Salix nigra
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-11-29

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: SALIX
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Salix
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Willow
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 400 species, trees, shrubs, and subshrubs, mostly north temperate and boreal.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Argus in FNA (2010); Argus (1986)=Z; Dorn (1995)=Y; Argus (1997); Chen et al. (2010). Key adapted from Z and FNA.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: SALICA
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Salicaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: De Mirbel 1815
FAMILY COMMON: Willow Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of 55 genera and about 1010 species (as circumscribed to include the Flacourtiaceae), trees, shrubs, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Argus, Eckenwalder, & Kiger in FNA (2010).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS: Pith continuous. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) brown or green or orange or purple or red or reddish-brown or yellow, 1–3 mm wide, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, pilose. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous or pubescent. Leaf scars V-shaped, bundle scars 3 per leaf scar, stipule scars inconspicuous or absent. Bark of mature trunks exfoliating or flaky or furrowed or ridged. Buds axillary, reddish-brown, 2–4 mm long, sharp, bud scales single scale.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, simple, petiolate, alternate, distichous, (2–)5–15 cm long, (0.3–)0.5–1.5(–2) cm wide, falcate or lanceolate, leaf margins serrate or serrulate, leaf apices acuminate, leaf bases cuneate or obtuse or rounded. Leaf upper surface green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent. Leaf lower surface green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent or with tufts in vein axils. Leaf venation pinnate. Petioles 0.2–1 cm long, pubescent, glandular. Stipules present, caducous or persistent, blade-like.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary or terminal, catkins, flowers sessile.
FLOWERS: Flowers unisexual or pistillate or staminate. Perianth. Calyx absent. Corolla absent. Androecium. Stamens 3–7 per flower. Gynoecium. Ovaries superior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 2 carpels per flower, styles 1 per pistil, styles 0.2 mm long.
FRUITS: Fruits capsules, 0.3–0.8 cm long, reddish-brown, fruit maturation 1 years.
COMMENTS: Leaves the same green color on both upper and lower surfaces; young twigs breaking easily at the base; the minute seeds with long, white, silky hairs.
HEIGHT: to 60 ft

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: February or March or April or May.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Disturbed, Woods margins
NATIVE RANGE: eastern to southwestern North America & Mexico

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Black willow is fast growing and frequently produces multiple trunks. Its dense but shallow root systems are effective soil-binders and help stabilize soils against erosion. The wood is soft and its dark, almost black bark develops grooves and a rough texture as the tree ages. The inner bark of the tree produces salicylic acid, the naturally occurring form of Aspirin. Native peoples of North America used the plant medicinally for fever and pain relief.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes: Native peoples of North America used the plant medicinally for fever and pain relief.

SOIL MOISTURE: Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 4
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 0
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
3819 1991-0514 View
4457 1992-0613 View
5406 1995-0529 View
5841 1995-0969 View
9195 2008-0369 2020-04-20 1951 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
638 SOS 2016-05-26 Dakar View
1951 HORT 2008-11-07 Wenck View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
6128 3819 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6785 4457 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7909 5406 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7910 5406 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8356 5841 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
12188 9195 82 Wenck 2009-01-01 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: SANI
USDA Common Name: Black Willow
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (MB, NB, ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: OBL OBL OBL FACW OBL OBL

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Salix nigra
COMMON NAME: Black Willow
SYNONYMY: [= F, FNA, G, GW, K, Mo, Pa, RAB, Va, W, WH3, WV, Z; ? S. nigra var. nigra - C; > S. nigra - S; S. marginata Wimmers ex Andersson - S]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-May.
HABITAT: Riverbanks, sandbars, bottomland forests, floodplain pools, tidal swamps, impoundments, ditches, other moist areas.
COMMENTS: NB, MN, NE, and CO, south to ne. FL, Panhandle FL, LA, and TX.
RANGE MAP: Salix nigra.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Salicaceae De Mirbel 1815 (Willow Family)
SUMMARY: A family of 55 genera and about 1010 species (as circumscribed to include the Flacourtiaceae), trees, shrubs, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan.
REFERENCE: Argus, Eckenwalder, & Kiger in FNA (2010).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Salix L. (Willow)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 400 species, trees, shrubs, and subshrubs, mostly north temperate and boreal.
REFERENCE: Argus in FNA (2010); Argus (1986)=Z; Dorn (1995)=Y; Argus (1997); Chen et al. (2010). Key adapted from Z and FNA.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Salix nigra in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Salix nigra in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Salix nigra in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Salix nigra in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Salix nigra in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Salix nigra

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 17036
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 0

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 34547

Image ID: 34548

Image ID: 38940

Image ID: 38941

Image ID: 17037

Image ID: 19718

Image ID: 34546

Image ID: 11905
9 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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