Plant Index


 
 
 

Quercus phellos

Quercus phellos L.

willow oak

Quercus phellos (Willow Oak)
Image ID: 16619
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: QUPH
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Quercus phellos
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-11-29

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: QUERC
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Quercus
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Oak
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 350-530 species, trees and shrubs, of temperate, subtropical, and rarely tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Oaks are the predominant tree of our area, with a variety of species dominating much of the landscape in nearly every ecological situation. Only in a few specialized (and usually in some sense edaphically extreme) communities are oaks generally entirely absent: deepest Coastal Plain swamps, some Coastal Plain depression ponds, wettest pine savannas, pocosins, spruce-fir forests, highest elevation northern hardwood forests, and mountain bogs.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Many oak species are well-adapted to ecological situations in which fires frequently burn the ground layer. Fire-maintained communities of the Piedmont and Mountains typically have oaks such as Q. stellata, Q. marilandica var. marilandica, Q. ilicifolia, and Q. prinoides. The two latter species are normally shrubby, and have become rarer because of fire suppression (they require fire to prevent larger trees from outcompeting them). In contrast, Q. stellata and Q. marilandica var. marilandica become larger and more frequent in fire-suppressed conditions.
GENUS REFERENCES: Nixon in FNA (1997) (overall treatment); Jensen in FNA (1997) (red oaks); Nixon & Muller in FNA (1997) (white oaks); Godfrey (1988); Stein, Binion, & Acciavatti (2003); Cronquist (1991); Duncan & Duncan (1988); Hunt (1990)=Z; Hunt (1994); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: FAGACE
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Fagaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Dumortier 1829
FAMILY COMMON: Beech Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 620-1050 species, trees and shrubs, mostly of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending into se. Asia and Australia.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS: Pith continuous. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) red or reddish-brown, 1–2 mm wide, glabrous. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous. Leaf scars half-round, bundle scars numerous, stipule scars inconspicuous, stipule scars not circumferential. Bark of mature trunks furrowed or ridged. Buds axillary or terminal, bud clusters at ends of twigs present, brown or reddish-brown, 2–4 mm long, ovoid, sharp, glabrous, bud scales imbricate.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, simple, petiolate or nearly sessile, alternate or spiral, (4–)5–12(–13) cm long, (0.6–)1–2.5(–3) cm wide, elliptic or falcate or lanceolate or linear or oblanceloate or oblong, leaf margins entire, leaf margins plane or revolute, leaf apices acute or apiculate, leaf bases cuneate or rounded. Leaf upper surface green, glabrous. Leaf lower surface green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent or with tufts in vein axils, stellate or tomentose. Leaf venation pinnate. Petioles 0.2–0.4(–0.6) cm long, glabrous or glabrate. Stipules present, caducous, not circumferential.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary, catkins or flowers solitary or spikes, flowers sessile.
FLOWERS: Flowers unisexual, epigynous. Perianth. Calyx radially symmetric, synsepalous. Sepals 4–6 per flower, yellow, sepal apices acute, pubescent, hirsute, caducous. Corolla absent. Androecium. Stamens (2–)6(–12) per flower, separate. Gynoecium. Ovaries inferior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 3 carpels per flower, styles 3 per pistil, placentation axile. Other floral features. Hypanthia present, involucres present.
FRUITS: Fruits accessory fruits or acorns or nuts, 1–1.2(–1.5) cm long, brown, fruit maturation 2 years.
COMMENTS: Staminate flowers in pendent catkins, pistillate flowers solitary or in few- to many-flowered spikes; pistillate flowers enclosed by a scaly involucre which develops into the acorn cup.
HEIGHT:

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: February or March or April or May.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Nov (of the second year).

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Disturbed
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
714 1985-0362 View
3317 1990-0182 View
3760 1991-0455 View
4481 1992-0637 View
5651 1995-0775 View
6268 1995-1400 View
6891 1998-0098 View
6892 1998-0099 View
8627 2006-0215 2006-08-24 View



GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1418 714 158 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1419 714 179 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5512 3317 53 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
6067 3760 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6809 4481 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
8165 5651 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8923 6268 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9754 6891 179 NCBG staff 1997-10-28 View
9755 6892 155 NCBG staff 1997-11-07 View
11819 8627 137 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: QUPH
USDA Common Name: Willow Oak
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FAC FACW FACW FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Quercus phellos
COMMON NAME: Willow Oak
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, GW, K, Mo, Pa, RAB, S, Va, W, WH3, Z]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-Apr; Sep-Nov (of the second year).
HABITAT: Bottomland forests, especially on natural levees and second terraces, also in upland depression swamps developed on clay soils, weedy and successional on slopes and upland sites following disturbance, and widely planted as a street tree in towns and cities.
COMMENTS: Primarily a species of the Southeastern Coastal Plain: NY (Long Island), s. NJ, and se. PA south to s. GA and Panhandle FL, west to e. TX and se. OK, north in the interior to e. TN, s. KY, w. KY, s. IL, and se. MO, and e. OK.
RANGE MAP: Quercus phellos.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Fagaceae Dumortier 1829 (Beech Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 620-1050 species, trees and shrubs, mostly of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending into se. Asia and Australia.
REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Quercus L. (Oak)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 350-530 species, trees and shrubs, of temperate, subtropical, and rarely tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Oaks are the predominant tree of our area, with a variety of species dominating much of the landscape in nearly every ecological situation. Only in a few specialized (and usually in some sense edaphically extreme) communities are oaks generally entirely absent: deepest Coastal Plain swamps, some Coastal Plain depression ponds, wettest pine savannas, pocosins, spruce-fir forests, highest elevation northern hardwood forests, and mountain bogs.
REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997) (overall treatment); Jensen in FNA (1997) (red oaks); Nixon & Muller in FNA (1997) (white oaks); Godfrey (1988); Stein, Binion, & Acciavatti (2003); Cronquist (1991); Duncan & Duncan (1988); Hunt (1990)=Z; Hunt (1994); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Quercus phellos in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Quercus phellos in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Quercus phellos in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Quercus phellos in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Quercus phellos in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Quercus phellos

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 16619
ID IMAGE2: 16616
ID IMAGE3: 0

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 16616

Image ID: 16617

Image ID: 16618

Image ID: 16620

Image ID: 16622

Image ID: 16621

Image ID: 38704

Image ID: 11798
9 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Go back