Plant Index


 
 
 

Quercus marilandica

Quercus marilandica Münchh.

blackjack oak

Quercus marilandica (Blackjack Oak)
Image ID: 16600
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: QUMA3
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Quercus marilandica
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-11-29

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: QUERC
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Quercus
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Oak
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 350-530 species, trees and shrubs, of temperate, subtropical, and rarely tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Oaks are the predominant tree of our area, with a variety of species dominating much of the landscape in nearly every ecological situation. Only in a few specialized (and usually in some sense edaphically extreme) communities are oaks generally entirely absent: deepest Coastal Plain swamps, some Coastal Plain depression ponds, wettest pine savannas, pocosins, spruce-fir forests, highest elevation northern hardwood forests, and mountain bogs.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Many oak species are well-adapted to ecological situations in which fires frequently burn the ground layer. Fire-maintained communities of the Piedmont and Mountains typically have oaks such as Q. stellata, Q. marilandica var. marilandica, Q. ilicifolia, and Q. prinoides. The two latter species are normally shrubby, and have become rarer because of fire suppression (they require fire to prevent larger trees from outcompeting them). In contrast, Q. stellata and Q. marilandica var. marilandica become larger and more frequent in fire-suppressed conditions.
GENUS REFERENCES: Nixon in FNA (1997) (overall treatment); Jensen in FNA (1997) (red oaks); Nixon & Muller in FNA (1997) (white oaks); Godfrey (1988); Stein, Binion, & Acciavatti (2003); Cronquist (1991); Duncan & Duncan (1988); Hunt (1990)=Z; Hunt (1994); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: FAGACE
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Fagaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Dumortier 1829
FAMILY COMMON: Beech Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 620-1050 species, trees and shrubs, mostly of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending into se. Asia and Australia.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS: Pith continuous. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) brown or reddish-brown, (1–)2–4(–5) mm wide, pubescent, puberulent or tomentose. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous or glabrate or pubescent. Leaf scars half-round, bundle scars numerous, stipule scars inconspicuous, stipule scars not circumferential. Bark of mature trunks checkered or furrowed or plated. Buds axillary or terminal, bud clusters at ends of twigs present, brown or reddish-brown, 5–10 mm long, conic or ellipsoid or ovoid, blunt or sharp, pubescent, bud scales imbricate.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, simple, petiolate, alternate or spiral, spreading or ascending, (5–)7.5–25(–30) cm long, (4–)7–20 cm wide, obdeltoid or obovate, leaf margins entire, unlobed or shallowly lobed, pinnately lobed, leaf lobes 3(–5) per leaf, leaf apices acute or apiculate or mucronate or rounded, leaf bases cordate or cuneate or obtuse or rounded. Leaf upper surface green or yellow-green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent. Leaf lower surface brown or green or orange or yellow, glabrate or pubescent or with tufts in vein axils, puberulent or stellate or tomentose. Leaf venation pinnate. Petioles 0.5–2 cm long, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, tomentose. Stipules present, caducous, not circumferential.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary, catkins or flowers solitary or spikes, flowers sessile.
FLOWERS: Flowers unisexual, epigynous. Perianth. Calyx radially symmetric, synsepalous. Sepals 4–6 per flower, calyx tubes 2–3 mm long, brown or green or red, ovate, pubescent, caducous. Corolla absent. Androecium. Stamens (2–)6(–12) per flower, separate. Gynoecium. Ovaries inferior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 3 carpels per flower, styles 3 per pistil, placentation axile. Other floral features. Hypanthia present, involucres present.
FRUITS: Fruits accessory fruits or acorns or nuts, (1–)1.5–2(–2.5) cm long, brown, fruit maturation 2 years.
COMMENTS: Staminate flowers in pendent catkins, pistillate flowers solitary or in few- to many-flowered spikes; pistillate flowers enclosed by a scaly involucre which develops into the acorn cup.
HEIGHT: to 50 ft. or more

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: March or April or May.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x

BLOOM COLOR: yellow, green
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Woods margins
NATIVE RANGE: eastern & central U.S.

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: This small, underappreciated oak grows in dry, sandy, or rocky soils where other woody plants may struggle. The large glossy leaves are club-shaped and turn reddish-brown in the fall. Blackjack oak is sometimes called "scrub oak" as it often has a stunted and gnarled appearance, but its toughness proves that it is a valuable tree for growing in difficult sites. The genus Quercus supports up to 518 lepidoptera species.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 6
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
711 1985-0359 View
3755 1991-0450 View
4476 1992-0632 View
5649 1995-0773 View



GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1414 711 159 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6062 3755 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6804 4476 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
8163 5649 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: QUMA3
USDA Common Name: Blackjack Oak
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME:
COMMON NAME:
SYNONYMY:
PHENOLOGY:
HABITAT:
COMMENTS:
RANGE MAP:

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Fagaceae Dumortier 1829 (Beech Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 620-1050 species, trees and shrubs, mostly of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending into se. Asia and Australia.
REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Quercus L. (Oak)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 350-530 species, trees and shrubs, of temperate, subtropical, and rarely tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Oaks are the predominant tree of our area, with a variety of species dominating much of the landscape in nearly every ecological situation. Only in a few specialized (and usually in some sense edaphically extreme) communities are oaks generally entirely absent: deepest Coastal Plain swamps, some Coastal Plain depression ponds, wettest pine savannas, pocosins, spruce-fir forests, highest elevation northern hardwood forests, and mountain bogs.
REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997) (overall treatment); Jensen in FNA (1997) (red oaks); Nixon & Muller in FNA (1997) (white oaks); Godfrey (1988); Stein, Binion, & Acciavatti (2003); Cronquist (1991); Duncan & Duncan (1988); Hunt (1990)=Z; Hunt (1994); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Quercus marilandica in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Quercus marilandica in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Quercus marilandica in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Quercus marilandica in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Quercus marilandica in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Quercus marilandica

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 16600
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 16601

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 16602

Image ID: 38696

Image ID: 16601

Image ID: 38695

Image ID: 11791
6 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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