Plant Index


 
 
 
 

Podophyllum peltatum

Podophyllum peltatum L.

may-apple, mayapple, american mandrake

Podophyllum peltatum (May-apple)
Image ID: 8667
Image by: Cotterman, Laura
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: POPE
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Podophyllum peltatum
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-03-28

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: PODOP
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Podophyllum
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Mayapple
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 2 species (or ca. 14 if Dysosma is included), herbs, one in e. North America, the other in e. Asia. The obvious morphological kinship of Podophyllum, Diphylleia, and Hydrastis is corroborated by alkaloid chemistry.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: George in FNA (1997); Shaw (2000, 2002)=Z; Loconte in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: BERBER
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Berberidaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Barberry Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: As broadly defined here, a family of about 15 genera and 650 species, herbs and shrubs, of the temperate Northern Hemisphere and Andean South America. There has been much debate and study of whether the Berberidaceae should be recognized as a broadly defined unit, or split into a variety of segregate families (such as Podophyllaceae, Epimediaceae, Nandinaceae, Leonticaceae). Based on molecular studies, Kim & Jansen (1996, 1998) and Kim et al. (2004) conclude that division of the Berberidaceae into segregate families is not warranted.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Whetstone, Atkinson, & Spaulding in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Stearn (2002); Kim & Jansen (1996, 1998); Ahrendt (1961); Loconte & Estes (1989b); Kim et al. (2004); Meacham (1980); Loconte in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Rhizomatous, colonial perennial found in rich forests and on bottomlands, slopes and pastures.
STEMS: A single, smooth stem emerges in early spring from a rhizome bearing distinct annual increment scars.
LEAVES: Leaves 2 (only 1 on young plants), opposite, rounded, to 8 in. or more wide, palmately divided into 5–9 lobes, unfurling as stem lengthens, to finally stand horizontally erect at the forked tip of the stem.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flower single, nodding on a stalk below the leaves; waxy-white; 1–2 in. wide; consisting of 6–9 rounded, overlapping petals, many prominent yellow stamens and a yellow-green ovary.
FRUITS: Fruit a fleshy, oval, lemon-colored berry.
COMMENTS: Root, leaves and unripe fruit of this species are highly toxic.
HEIGHT: 12-18 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate, Opposite
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Mar-Apr
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: White
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD: May-Jun.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: May-apple is a delightful spring wildflower that produces a single showy, nodding white flower under handsome umbrella-like leaves in April. These plants only bloom when mature enough to produce two leaves per stem. The flower develops into an edible, greenish fruit, turning golden when ripe and is used for preserves. All other parts of this plant are poisonous! By the end of June, this species has gone dormant. Native to much of the eastern US, it prefers rich, moist humusy soil but is also somewhat tolerant of poor soil conditions and drought. Ideally planted in areas that can be devoted exclusively to may-apple, as it tends to colonize shady areas.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
192 2011-0003 2011-01-04 191 View
1370 1986-1147 View
2111 1986-1915 View
2324 1986-2159 View
4040 1992-0196 View
5525 1995-0648 View
6246 1995-1378 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
191 HORT 2008-05-05 Keith View
1490 HORT 2006-08-14 Wilbur-Brooks View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
375 192 25 NCBG staff 2011-04-07 View
2383 1370 83 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
2384 1370 92 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
2385 1370 94 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3529 2111 68 NCBG staff 1996-01-01 View
3530 2111 80 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
3531 2111 187 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
3532 2111 11 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3533 2111 78 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3534 2111 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3535 2111 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3536 2111 133 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
4006 2324 81 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
4007 2324 93 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
6368 4040 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
8039 5525 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8901 6246 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: POPE
USDA Common Name: Mayapple
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (NS, ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Podophyllum peltatum
COMMON NAME: May-apple, American Mandrake
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, K, Pa, RAB, S, Va, W, WH3, WV; > P. peltatum var. peltatum - Z; > P. peltatum var. annulare J.M.H. Shaw - Z]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-Apr; May-Jun.
HABITAT: Rich forests, bottomlands, slopes, pastures.
COMMENTS: NS west to MN, south to Panhandle FL and TX. The ripe fruits are edible; the rest of the plant contains a variety of alkaloids, and is poisonous-medicinal. Compounds from Podophyllum are used in wart removal, and show anti-viral and anti-cancer promise.
RANGE MAP: Podophyllum peltatum.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Berberidaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Barberry Family)
SUMMARY: As broadly defined here, a family of about 15 genera and 650 species, herbs and shrubs, of the temperate Northern Hemisphere and Andean South America. There has been much debate and study of whether the Berberidaceae should be recognized as a broadly defined unit, or split into a variety of segregate families (such as Podophyllaceae, Epimediaceae, Nandinaceae, Leonticaceae). Based on molecular studies, Kim & Jansen (1996, 1998) and Kim et al. (2004) conclude that division of the Berberidaceae into segregate families is not warranted.
REFERENCE: Whetstone, Atkinson, & Spaulding in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Stearn (2002); Kim & Jansen (1996, 1998); Ahrendt (1961); Loconte & Estes (1989b); Kim et al. (2004); Meacham (1980); Loconte in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Podophyllum L. (Mayapple)
SUMMARY: A genus of 2 species (or ca. 14 if Dysosma is included), herbs, one in e. North America, the other in e. Asia. The obvious morphological kinship of Podophyllum, Diphylleia, and Hydrastis is corroborated by alkaloid chemistry.
REFERENCE: George in FNA (1997); Shaw (2000, 2002)=Z; Loconte in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Podophyllum peltatum in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Podophyllum peltatum in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Podophyllum peltatum in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Podophyllum peltatum in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Podophyllum peltatum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Podophyllum peltatum

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 8667
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 23655

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