Plant Index


 
 
 

Oenothera fruticosa

Oenothera fruticosa L.

southern sundrops, narrowleaf evening primrose

Oenothera fruticosa (Southern Sundrops)
Image ID: 24035
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: OEFR
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Oenothera fruticosa
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-02-12

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: OENOT
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Oenothera
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Evening primrose
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 145 species (188 taxa), herbs, of America (especially temperate regions). This treatment provisional, with further revision likely, especially in the O. fruticosa-O. tetragona-O. pilosella complex.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Wagner, Hoch, & Raven (2007)=U; Dietrich, Wagner, & Raven (1997)=Z; Dietrich & Wagner (1988)=Y; Munz (1965)=X; Straley (1977)=V. Keys adapted in part from those references.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ONAGRA
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Onagraceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Evening-primrose Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 18 genera and 655 species, herbs, shrubs, and rarely trees, cosmopolitan (especially of temperate and subtropical America).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Wagner, Hock, & Raven (2007); Munz (1965)=X; Crisci et al. (1990).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial found in dry forests and woodlands, glades and rock outcrops.
STEMS: Stems simple or branched above, often tinged dark red, rough-hairy.
LEAVES: Basal leaves form a rosette the first year and are oval to spoon-shaped; stem leaves are alternate, sessile or short-petioled, elliptic to lance-shaped, to 4 in. long.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in compact, occasionally nodding clusters at tips of stems and solitary in axils of reduced leaves; each flower lemon yellow, about 2 in. wide, consisting of 4 notch-tipped petals, 8 stamens and a cross-shaped stigma. An elongated calyx tube consists of 4 spreading or reflexed sepals.
FRUITS: Fruit a strongly 4-angled, club-shaped capsule.
COMMENTS: Flowers close at night.
HEIGHT: 1-2 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Apr-Aug
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Lemon-yellow
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Outcrops and glades, Woods margins
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: The lemon-yellow flowers of southern sundrops add a cheerful touch to the garden. They make a nice low-growing filler for the sunny perennial border. The attractive foliage is glossy green, often with purplish spots. In the wild, southern sundrops are found growing in dry woods and meadows and along roadsides. Any well-drained soil is fine for growing this cheerful southeastern native perennial. Very drought-tolerant once established. The Oenothera genus supports up to 16 species of lepidoptera. 1989 N.C. Wildflower of the Year.

Bloom Table Text: Common in woods, meadows and roadsides, this native wildflower creates a showy display in late spring and early summer. The large size and intense yellow color of the flowers has led to its frequent cultivation. Although a member of the Evening-primrose Family, sundrops are open only during the day rather than at night. Cherokee Indians used this plant as a potherb - the leaves were parboiled, rinsed, and cooked in hot grease. **1989 North Carolina Wildflower of the Year**

NCBG Location: Education Center Landscape, Native Perennial Border, Piedmont Habitat, Plant Families Garden

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 4
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE: 1, 4
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
233 2011-0061 2011-04-05 232 View
284 2011-0143 2011-06-16 289 View
1984 1986-1775 View
2319 1986-2152 View
4184 1992-0340 View
5719 1995-0845 View
6209 1995-1341 View
8916 1986-2340 0000-00-00 1185 View
9131 2006-0337 2006-10-25 1306 View
9213 2013-0036 2020-05-05 0 View
9374 2021-0037 2021-04-05 0 View
9418 2021-0080 2021-06-29 View
9448 2021-0107 2021-07-12 0 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
232 HORT 2010-06-17 Poythress View
289 HORT 2009-01-01 NCBG staff View
1185 HORT 1986-12-31 View
1259 HORT 2005-06-24 Bryan View
1306 HORT View
1319 HORT 2006-07-01 Bryan View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
496 233 32 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View
497 233 28 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View
498 233 29 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View
499 233 31 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View
500 233 32 NCBG staff 2011-04-29 View
501 233 31 NCBG staff 2011-04-29 View
502 233 36 Randall 2011-04-19 View
503 233 15 NCBG staff 2011-05-17 View
504 233 44 NCBG staff 2011-05-10 View
505 233 19 NCBG staff 2011-05-12 View
506 233 39 NCBG staff 2011-05-13 View
507 233 31 NCBG staff 2011-11-01 View
508 233 32 NCBG staff 2011-11-01 View
675 284 21 NCBG staff 2011-06-16 View
3178 1984 61 NCBG staff 1986-12-23 View
3179 1984 63 NCBG staff 1986-12-23 View
4002 2319 94 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4224 8916 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4225 8916 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4226 8916 142 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4227 8916 143 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
6512 4184 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
8233 5719 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8864 6209 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
11905 9131 135 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12298 9213 17 Liloia 2013-05-03 View
12354 9213 20 Liloia 2014-08-26 View
12598 9374 226 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12599 9374 227 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12600 9374 228 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12601 9374 229 Wait 2020-06-25 View
12731 9418 146 Wenck 2021-05-03 View
12830 0 18 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
12839 9448 21 Liloia 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: OEFR
USDA Common Name: Narrowleaf Evening Primrose
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, WV), CAN (MB, NB, NS, ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FAC FAC FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Oenothera fruticosa var. fruticosa
COMMON NAME: Southern Sundrops
SYNONYMY: [= F, G, X; < O. fruticosa - C, RAB, Va, WH3; < O. fruticosa ssp. fruticosa - K1, K2, Mo, Pa, U, V, W; > O. fruticosa var. linearis (Michaux) S. Watson - F, WV; > O. fruticosa var. humifusa Allen - F, G, X; > Kneiffia fruticosa (Linnaeus) Raimann - S; > Kneiffia arenicola Small - S; > Kneiffia semiglandulosa Pennell - S]
PHENOLOGY:
HABITAT: Cp (DE, GA, NC, SC, VA), Pd (DE, GA, NC, SC, VA), Mt (GA, NC, VA, WV):
COMMENTS: Dry forests and woodlands, glades, and rock outcrops; common (rare in DE). Apr-Aug. MA west to IN, south to FL and LA.
RANGE MAP:

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Onagraceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Evening-primrose Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 18 genera and 655 species, herbs, shrubs, and rarely trees, cosmopolitan (especially of temperate and subtropical America).
REFERENCE: Wagner, Hock, & Raven (2007); Munz (1965)=X; Crisci et al. (1990).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Oenothera L. (Evening primrose)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 145 species (188 taxa), herbs, of America (especially temperate regions). This treatment provisional, with further revision likely, especially in the O. fruticosa-O. tetragona-O. pilosella complex.
REFERENCE: Wagner, Hoch, & Raven (2007)=U; Dietrich, Wagner, & Raven (1997)=Z; Dietrich & Wagner (1988)=Y; Munz (1965)=X; Straley (1977)=V. Keys adapted in part from those references.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Oenothera fruticosa in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Oenothera fruticosa in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Oenothera fruticosa in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Oenothera fruticosa in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Oenothera fruticosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Oenothera fruticosa

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 24035
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 19700

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