Plant Index


 
 
 

Oenothera biennis

Oenothera biennis L.

common evening-primrose, common evening primrose

Synonym(s): Oenothera biennis ssp. caeciarum, Oenothera biennis ssp. centralis, Oenothera biennis var. pycnocarpa, Oenothera muricata, Oenothera pycnocarpa
Oenothera biennis (Common Evening-primrose)
Image ID: 15854
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: OEBI
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Oenothera biennis
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-01-26

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: OENOT
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Oenothera
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Evening primrose
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 145 species (188 taxa), herbs, of America (especially temperate regions). This treatment provisional, with further revision likely, especially in the O. fruticosa-O. tetragona-O. pilosella complex.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Wagner, Hoch, & Raven (2007)=U; Dietrich, Wagner, & Raven (1997)=Z; Dietrich & Wagner (1988)=Y; Munz (1965)=X; Straley (1977)=V. Keys adapted in part from those references.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ONAGRA
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Onagraceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Evening-primrose Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 18 genera and 655 species, herbs, shrubs, and rarely trees, cosmopolitan (especially of temperate and subtropical America).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Wagner, Hock, & Raven (2007); Munz (1965)=X; Crisci et al. (1990).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Biennial/short-lived perennial found in fields, pastures, roadsides and other disturbed areas.
STEMS: Stems unbranched, green to reddish-green, very leafy and furry-hairy.
LEAVES: Basal leaves form a rosette the first year; second-year leaves alternate and mostly ascending on the stem, sessile to subsessile, lance-shaped, to 6 in. long, entire or toothed.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers arising from upper leaf axils, bright yellow, 1-2½ in. wide, consisting of 4 heart-shaped petals, an elongated calyx tube of 4 strongly reflexed sepals, 8 stamens and a cross-shaped stigma.
FRUITS: Fruit an ascending, lance-cylindric capsule.
COMMENTS: Flowers open at dusk and are pollinated by sphinx moths.
HEIGHT: 2-5 ft.

DURATION: Biennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Jun-Oct
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Bright yellow
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Disturbed
NATIVE RANGE: United States & southern Canada

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
1352 1986-1127 View
3210 1990-0050 View
4183 1992-0339 View
5718 1995-0844 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
613 SOS 2015-11-12 Dakar View
628 SOS 2015-11-11 Driskill View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
2358 1352 81 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5373 3210 90 NCBG staff 1988-01-01 View
5374 3210 89 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
5375 3210 81 NCBG staff 1988-01-01 View
6511 4183 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
8232 5718 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: OEBI
USDA Common Name: Common Evening Primrose
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV), CAN (AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK)
Duration: Biennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Oenothera biennis
COMMON NAME: Common Evening-primrose
SYNONYMY: [= K1, K2, Mo, Pa, U, W, WH3, Z; < O. biennis - G, RAB, S, Va, WV; = O. biennis var. biennis - C; > O. biennis var. biennis - F; > O. biennis var. pycnocarpa (Atkinson & Bartlett) Wiegand - F; > O. biennis ssp. caeciarum Munz - X; > O. biennis ssp. centralis Munz - X]
PHENOLOGY: Jun-Oct.
HABITAT: Fields, pastures, roadsides, disturbed areas.
COMMENTS: Ranging widely in e. North America and Europe, and scattered in w. North America.
RANGE MAP: Oenothera biennis.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Onagraceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Evening-primrose Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 18 genera and 655 species, herbs, shrubs, and rarely trees, cosmopolitan (especially of temperate and subtropical America).
REFERENCE: Wagner, Hock, & Raven (2007); Munz (1965)=X; Crisci et al. (1990).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Oenothera L. (Evening primrose)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 145 species (188 taxa), herbs, of America (especially temperate regions). This treatment provisional, with further revision likely, especially in the O. fruticosa-O. tetragona-O. pilosella complex.
REFERENCE: Wagner, Hoch, & Raven (2007)=U; Dietrich, Wagner, & Raven (1997)=Z; Dietrich & Wagner (1988)=Y; Munz (1965)=X; Straley (1977)=V. Keys adapted in part from those references.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Oenothera biennis in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Oenothera biennis in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Oenothera biennis in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Oenothera biennis in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Oenothera biennis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Oenothera biennis

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 15854
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 0

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 15855

Image ID: 34472

Image ID: 34517

Image ID: 34518

Image ID: 38120

Image ID: 34471

Image ID: 34473

Image ID: 34516

Image ID: 11567
10 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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