Plant Index


 
 
 

Monarda punctata

Monarda punctata L.

eastern horse-mint, spotted beebalm

Monarda punctata (Eastern Horse-mint)
Image ID: 9306
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: MOPU
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Monarda punctata
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-02-12

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: MONAR
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Monarda
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Beebalm
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 12-20 species, herbs, of North America. Many of our species are cultivated, especially M. didyma in various selected forms. Additional studies are needed on a number of taxonomic problems in Monarda. Most of the varieties recognized above have been considered valid by a succession of workers; they do seem to describe morphologically distinguishable (if not entirely discrete) entities which make phytogeographic sense.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: McClintock & Epling (1942)=Z; Scora (1967)=Y; Fosberg & Artz (1953)=X; Gill (1977); Prather & Keith (2003); Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: LAMIAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Lamiaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Lindley 1836 or LABIATAE A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Mint Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 230-250 genera and 6700-7170 species, herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees, cosmopolitan. The placement in the Lamiaceae of several genera traditionally placed in Verbenaceae (e.g. Clerodendrum) is strongly supported by several lines of evidence.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect, short-lived perennial growing in maritime forests, dry rocky or sandy woodlands, clearings and fields and roadsides.
STEMS: Stems 4-angled, sparingly branched, brown to reddish-purple, with soft hairs beneath.
LEAVES: Leaves opposite, petiolate, lance-shaped to narrowly elliptic, to 3 1/2 in. long, with toothed margins and softly hairy.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in 2--6 whorled clusters along upper reaches of stem, each whorl subtended by conspicuous whitish to pink-purple bracts. Flowers yellow- and purple-spotted, to 1 in. long, bilaterally symmetric, tubular and split into 2 lips, the upper one longer than the stamens, strongly arched, and bearded at the tip, and the lower 3-lobed with a notched middle lobe.
FRUITS:
COMMENTS: Like other Monarda species, this one has a history of medicinal use and was once planted as a commercial source of thymol, which has strong antiseptic properties. Varieties var. arkansas and var. villicaulis are recognized on the basis of type of pubescence on lower leaf surface and stems, and leaf size. Consult a technical guide (see Appendix) for identification.
HEIGHT: 2-3 ft.

DURATION: Annual, Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Opposite
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Bilateral (Zygomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: July-September
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Yellow and pink
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep.-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Disturbed, maritime, Sandhills, Woods margins
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Eastern horse-mint intricate detailed tiers of fragrant flowers provide a beautiful show in midsummer. The true flowers are pale yellow, with showy bracts tinged with lavender and rose- pink. This SE native perennial makes an excellent cut flower. A single plant makes a nice accent, or you can group several in your perennial garden or meadow. This is a must-have for butterfly gardens. Historically used to treat flu-like symptoms.

Bloom Table Text: This species has rather unusual-looking flowers and attractive bracts. Blooming in mid to late summer, this plant adds color and contrast to a landscape. It is easily distinguished from most Monarda spp. (Bee Balms) by its multiple whorls of fragrant flowers on the same stem. An aromatic erect perennial ranging from only 6 in. to almost 3 ft. tall, it grows best in lean dry sandy soils with plenty of sun and air circulation. The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract a large number of native bees and also honey bees. The oregano-scented foliage is repugnant to mammals and rarely consumed by them. Many Native American Tribes used Spotted Horsemint medicinally.

NCBG Location: Children's Wonder Garden, Plant Families Garden

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 4
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
78 2013-0026 2013-11-27 81 View
1348 1986-1123 View
8050 2004-0058 2004-09-09 View
8207 2004-0226 2006-05-19 View
9123 2006-0250 2006-09-12 1165 View
9414 2021-0076 2021-06-29 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
81 HORT Parkins View
445 SOS 2015-08-18 Heraty View
705 SOS 2016-09-07 Healy View
755 SOS 2016-09-28 Dakar View
1150 HORT 2006-10-08 Liloia View
1165 HORT 1995-11-06 Wenck View
1277 HORT 2005-10-10 Bryan View
1412 HORT 2006-11-01 Liloia View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
103 78 6 Liloia 2013-11-01 View
2349 1348 81 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
11309 8050 27 NCBG staff 2003-11-05 View
11474 8207 81 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
11863 9123 6 Liloia 2006-09-06 View
12727 9414 146 Wenck 2021-05-03 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: MOPU
USDA Common Name: Spotted Beebalm
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI), CAN (ON, QC)
Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Growth Habit: Subshrub, Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU UPL UPL UPL UPL UPL UPL

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Monarda punctata var. punctata
COMMON NAME: Eastern Horse-mint
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, Va, Y; < M. punctata - RAB, Pa, S, W, WH3; = M. punctata ssp. punctata - G, Z; = M. punctata ssp. punctata var. punctata - K]
PHENOLOGY: Late Jul-Sep; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Maritime forests, dunes, roadsides, rocky or sandy woodlands.
COMMENTS: NJ to s. FL, west to TX, mainly on the Coastal Plain, but extending inland southward.
RANGE MAP:

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Lamiaceae Lindley 1836 or LABIATAE A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Mint Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 230-250 genera and 6700-7170 species, herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees, cosmopolitan. The placement in the Lamiaceae of several genera traditionally placed in Verbenaceae (e.g. Clerodendrum) is strongly supported by several lines of evidence.
REFERENCE: Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Monarda L. (Beebalm)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 12-20 species, herbs, of North America. Many of our species are cultivated, especially M. didyma in various selected forms. Additional studies are needed on a number of taxonomic problems in Monarda. Most of the varieties recognized above have been considered valid by a succession of workers; they do seem to describe morphologically distinguishable (if not entirely discrete) entities which make phytogeographic sense.
REFERENCE: McClintock & Epling (1942)=Z; Scora (1967)=Y; Fosberg & Artz (1953)=X; Gill (1977); Prather & Keith (2003); Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Monarda punctata in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Monarda punctata in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Monarda punctata in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Monarda punctata in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Monarda punctata in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Monarda punctata

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 9306
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 9305

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