Plant Index


 
 
 

Monarda fistulosa

Monarda fistulosa L.

appalachian bergamot, wild bergamot

Cultivar(s): Claire Grace
Monarda fistulosa (Appalachian Bergamot)
Image ID: 9299
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: MOFI
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Monarda fistulosa
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-02-12

CULTIVAR INDEX

Cult_id Cultivar_name Action
223 Claire Grace View

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: MONAR
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Monarda
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Beebalm
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 12-20 species, herbs, of North America. Many of our species are cultivated, especially M. didyma in various selected forms. Additional studies are needed on a number of taxonomic problems in Monarda. Most of the varieties recognized above have been considered valid by a succession of workers; they do seem to describe morphologically distinguishable (if not entirely discrete) entities which make phytogeographic sense.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: McClintock & Epling (1942)=Z; Scora (1967)=Y; Fosberg & Artz (1953)=X; Gill (1977); Prather & Keith (2003); Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: LAMIAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Lamiaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Lindley 1836 or LABIATAE A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Mint Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 230-250 genera and 6700-7170 species, herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees, cosmopolitan. The placement in the Lamiaceae of several genera traditionally placed in Verbenaceae (e.g. Clerodendrum) is strongly supported by several lines of evidence.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect, colonial-rhizomatous perennial found on moist wooded slopes, roadsides, woodland edges and old fields, mostly in the Appalachian Mountains.
STEMS: Stems 4-angled, branching above, green to reddish-brown, often with hairs on the angles.
LEAVES: Leaves opposite, petiolate, oval to broadly lance-shaped, to 4 in. long, with toothed margins, often red- or purple-tinged, lightly hairy and releasing a pungent scent when crushed.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in crowns up to 3 in. wide at stem ends, surrounded by leafy bracts; pink to lavender (or white); about 1 in. long; tubular with 2 spreading lips, the upper one straight and with 2 projecting stamens, the lower split into 3 narrow lobes. Flowers in the center bloom first.
FRUITS:
COMMENTS: Varieties of Monarda fistulosa (var. mollis, var. brevis) are recognized on the basis of type of hairiness on petioles and leaf surfaces, length of calyx, and leathery quality of leaves. Consult a technical guide (see Appendix) for identification of these.
HEIGHT: 2-5 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Opposite
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Bilateral (Zygomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: May-September
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Light lavender flowers
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Disturbed, Moist forests, Woods margins
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Like several other Monarda species, M. fistulosa makes an excellent cut flower. This plant is also a great addition to any pollinator garden because it attracts birds, hummingbirds and butterflies. The plant is also highly deer resistant. In the wild this plant is found growing in dry open woods, fields, wet meadows and ditches. M. fistulosa will grow in a variety of soil conditions but is not tolerant of flooding.

Bloom Table Text: Like several other Monarda species, M. fistulosa makes an excellent cut flower. This plant is also a great addition to any pollinator garden because it attracts birds, hummingbirds and butterflies. The plant is also highly deer resistant. In the wild this plant is found growing in dry open woods, fields, wet meadows and ditches. M. fistulosa will grow in a variety of soil conditions but is not tolerant of flooding.

NCBG Location: Education Center Landscape

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 4
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 8
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Hummingbird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
98 2012-0070 2012-06-06 99 View
142 2010-0057 2010-11-25 143 View
3661 1991-0355 View
6601 1996-0236 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
99 HORT 2010-11-23 Poythress View
143 HORT 2010-11-24 Liloia View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
152 98 42 Mixon 2012-03-21 View
153 98 18 Liloia 2012-05-01 View
154 98 19 Liloia 2012-05-01 View
5963 3661 96 NCBG staff 1991-05-01 View
9321 6601 27 NCBG staff 1996-11-26 View
12463 98 20 Liloia 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: MOFI
USDA Common Name: Wild Bergamot
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY), CAN (AB, BC, MB, NT, ON, QC, SK)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Subshrub, Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU UPL UPL FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa
COMMON NAME: Appalachian Bergamot
SYNONYMY: [= F, WV, X, Y; < M. fistulosa var. fistulosa - C, G, Va, Z (also see var. mollis) ; = M. fistulosa ssp. fistulosa var. fistulosa - K1, K2; < M. fistulosa ssp. fistulosa - Mo; < M. fistulosa - Pa, RAB, W; = M. fistulosa - S]
PHENOLOGY:
HABITAT: Mt (NC, VA, WV), Pd (DE, NC, VA):
COMMENTS: Moist wooded slopes, roadsides, woodland edges, old fields; common (rare in DE). Jun-Sep; Aug-Oct. CT south to sw. NC, nearly or entirely limited to the Appalachians. I have interpreted var. fistulosa and var. mollis somewhat differently than some previous workers. A more coherent geographic pattern is achieved by limiting var. fistulosa to plants with spreading hairs only.
RANGE MAP:

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Lamiaceae Lindley 1836 or LABIATAE A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Mint Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 230-250 genera and 6700-7170 species, herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees, cosmopolitan. The placement in the Lamiaceae of several genera traditionally placed in Verbenaceae (e.g. Clerodendrum) is strongly supported by several lines of evidence.
REFERENCE: Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Monarda L. (Beebalm)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 12-20 species, herbs, of North America. Many of our species are cultivated, especially M. didyma in various selected forms. Additional studies are needed on a number of taxonomic problems in Monarda. Most of the varieties recognized above have been considered valid by a succession of workers; they do seem to describe morphologically distinguishable (if not entirely discrete) entities which make phytogeographic sense.
REFERENCE: McClintock & Epling (1942)=Z; Scora (1967)=Y; Fosberg & Artz (1953)=X; Gill (1977); Prather & Keith (2003); Harley et al. in Kadereit (2004).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Monarda fistulosa in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Monarda fistulosa in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Monarda fistulosa in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Monarda fistulosa in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Monarda fistulosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Monarda fistulosa

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 9299
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 9300

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 38016

Image ID: 7811

Image ID: 8462

Image ID: 29731

Image ID: 29730

Image ID: 29732

Image ID: 29733

Image ID: 29734

Image ID: 29735

Image ID: 29736

Image ID: 29737

Image ID: 29738

Image ID: 29739

Image ID: 29740

Image ID: 29741

Image ID: 29742

Image ID: 29743

Image ID: 29744

Image ID: 29745

Image ID: 29746

Image ID: 29747

Image ID: 29748

Image ID: 29749

Image ID: 29750

Image ID: 20298

Image ID: 7810

Image ID: 8463

Image ID: 9300

Image ID: 9301

Image ID: 9302

Image ID: 9303

Image ID: 9304

Image ID: 19694

Image ID: 5275

Image ID: 20299

Image ID: 20300

Image ID: 20301

Image ID: 20302

Image ID: 20303

Image ID: 20304

Image ID: 27606

Image ID: 27607

Image ID: 27608

Image ID: 29728

Image ID: 29729

Image ID: 11528

Image ID: 29751

Image ID: 29752
49 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Go back