Plant Index


 
 
 

Lycopodiella alopecuroides

Lycopodiella alopecuroides (L.) Cranfill

foxtail clubmoss

Synonym(s): Lepidotis alopecuroides, Lycopodium alopecuroides, Lycopodium inundatum var. alopecuroides
Lycopodiella alopecuroides (Foxtail Clubmoss)
Image ID: 12984
Image by: Cressler, Alan M.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: LYAL5
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lycopodiella alopecuroides
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2016-02-19

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: LYCOP6
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Lycopodiella
GENUS AUTHORITY: Holub
GENUS COMMON: Clubmoss
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 15-20 species, temperate and tropical. Additional research on this genus in our area is needed. Two fertile tetraploid species were recently named from MI (Bruce, Wagner, & Beitel 1991), and additional cryptic or semicryptic species may be found in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. This group is variously treated as genus Lycopodiella, or as Lycopodiella section Lycopodiella (Øllgaard in Kramer & Green 1990, Wikström & Kenrick 2000), with a strong trend towards generic rank.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Species of this genus are difficult to identify. They often grow together; it is not uncommon to find two or more species at a single site in the Coastal Plain. Hybrids occur. Juvenile plants, resprouting in spring or after fire, are especially difficult to identify. In contrast to the other species, Pseudolycopodiella caroliniana and, to a lesser degree, L. prostrata, are dorsiventrally flattened (or apparently distichous), but it seems that juvenile sprouts of all species are somewhat flattened.
GENUS REFERENCES: Wagner & Beitel in FNA (1993b); Zhang & Iwatsuki in FoC (2013); Øllgaard in Kramer & Green (1990); Wikström & Kenrick (2000); Haines (2002a, 2003a, 2003b)=Z; Øllgaard (2012a). [also see Pseudolycopodiella]

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: LYCOPO
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Lycopodiaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Palisot de Beauvois 1802
FAMILY COMMON: Clubmoss Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of 10-15 genera and about 400 species. Lycopodiaceae, along with Selaginellaceae and Isoetaceae, have now been shown to be only distantly related to other extant pteridophytes and seed plants (Pryer et al. 2001). The division of North American Lycopodium into three or more genera has been strongly advocated by Wagner & Beitel (1992), Wagner & Beitel in FNA (1993), Haines (2003a), and nearly all other recent authors. The traditionally broad Lycopodium appears to include a number of natural groups which are strikingly different from one another and have constituted separate lineages for tens to hundreds of millions of years. These natural groups are separable by numerous morphological, developmental, and anatomical characters, karyotype, and inability to hybridize. Wagner & Beitel (1992) divide Lycopodium (sensu latissimo) of our area into six genera in three subfamilies, as follows: Huperzia in Subfamily Huperzioideae, Lycopodium and Diphasiastrum in Subfamily Lycopodioideae, and Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea, and Pseudolycopodiella in Subfamily Lycopodielloideae. Haines (2003a) further divides Lycopodium (sensu lato) into three genera: Dendrolycopodium, Spinulum, and Lycopodium (sensu stricto). The reasoning behind this division is very strong, and it is here followed. Profound differences in anatomy, morphology, reproduction, gametophyte morphology, and karyotype support this separation, in addition to the very great age of these lineages. The chromosome numbers of our genera: Dendrolycopodium (x=34), Diphasiastrum (x=23), Huperzia (x=67, 68), Lycopodiella (x=78), Lycopodium (x=34), Palhinhaea (x=55), Pseudolycopodiella (x=35), and Spinulum (x=34). Øllgaard in Kramer & Green (1990) and Wikström & Kenrick (2000) follow a somewhat broader coarse, recognizing three genera for our species (corresponding to the subfamilies of Wagner & Beitel 1992), and recognizing as sections the genera of Wagner & Beitel (1992). Øllgaard states that the “genera are very distinct, and also the sections within Lycopodiella and Lycopodium seem to represent ancient, independent evolutionary lines”; later, Øllgaard has elevated the sections to generic rank (Øllgaard & Windisch 2014). Wikström & Kenrick (2000, 2001) suggest that the phylogenetic separation of Lycopodium (including Diphasiastrum) and Lycopodiella (including Pseudolycopodiella and Palhinhaea) occurred at least as long ago as the early Jurassic (208 million years before present), and the divergence of Huperzia from Lycopodium and Lycopodiella still longer ago. Based on this deep division between Huperzia and the other genera, some authors additionally advocate the recognition of Huperzia in a separate family, Huperziaceae, an opinion followed here.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Lellinger (1985); Mickel (1979); Wagner and Beitel (1992); Beitel (1979); Snyder & Bruce (1986); Wagner & Beitel in FNA (1993b); Øllgaard in Kramer & Green (1990); Wikström & Kenrick (2000, 2001); Øllgaard (1987); Haines (2003a). Key based in part on Haines (2003a).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT:

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb, Subshrub

LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
LEAF COMPLEXITY:
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Jul-Sep
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE:
NATIVE RANGE:

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
997 1985-0693 View
1863 1986-1644 View



GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1877 997 59 NCBG staff 1985-02-19 View
2955 1863 59 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: LYAL5
USDA Common Name: Foxtail Clubmoss
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, ME, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Subshrub, Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: OBL FACW OBL FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lycopodiella alopecuroides
COMMON NAME: Foxtail Clubmoss
SYNONYMY: [= Ar, FNA, K, Pa, Tn, Va, WH3, Z; < Lycopodium alopecuroides Linnaeus - RAB; = Lycopodium alopecuroides Linnaeus - C, F, G, Md, S, W]
PHENOLOGY: Jul-Sep.
HABITAT: Savannas, seepages, and other wet, sandy sites.
COMMENTS: Primarily Southeastern Coastal Plain: se. MA south to FL and west to e. TX, and disjunct in the Cumberland Plateau of KY, TN, and VA, the Allegheny Mountains of WV (Morton et al. 2004), the e. Highland Rim of TN, and in ME (Haines 2001); s. Mexico south through Central America to n. South America; Cuba. The tropical posrtions of the distribution may be considered somewhat presumptive at this time; for instance, Øllgaard (2012a) elevates two taxa previously treated as varieties of Lycopodiella alopecuroides to species rank.
RANGE MAP: Lycopodiella alopecuroides.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Lycopodiaceae Palisot de Beauvois 1802 (Clubmoss Family)
SUMMARY: A family of 10-15 genera and about 400 species. Lycopodiaceae, along with Selaginellaceae and Isoetaceae, have now been shown to be only distantly related to other extant pteridophytes and seed plants (Pryer et al. 2001). The division of North American Lycopodium into three or more genera has been strongly advocated by Wagner & Beitel (1992), Wagner & Beitel in FNA (1993), Haines (2003a), and nearly all other recent authors. The traditionally broad Lycopodium appears to include a number of natural groups which are strikingly different from one another and have constituted separate lineages for tens to hundreds of millions of years. These natural groups are separable by numerous morphological, developmental, and anatomical characters, karyotype, and inability to hybridize. Wagner & Beitel (1992) divide Lycopodium (sensu latissimo) of our area into six genera in three subfamilies, as follows: Huperzia in Subfamily Huperzioideae, Lycopodium and Diphasiastrum in Subfamily Lycopodioideae, and Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea, and Pseudolycopodiella in Subfamily Lycopodielloideae. Haines (2003a) further divides Lycopodium (sensu lato) into three genera: Dendrolycopodium, Spinulum, and Lycopodium (sensu stricto). The reasoning behind this division is very strong, and it is here followed. Profound differences in anatomy, morphology, reproduction, gametophyte morphology, and karyotype support this separation, in addition to the very great age of these lineages. The chromosome numbers of our genera: Dendrolycopodium (x=34), Diphasiastrum (x=23), Huperzia (x=67, 68), Lycopodiella (x=78), Lycopodium (x=34), Palhinhaea (x=55), Pseudolycopodiella (x=35), and Spinulum (x=34). Øllgaard in Kramer & Green (1990) and Wikström & Kenrick (2000) follow a somewhat broader coarse, recognizing three genera for our species (corresponding to the subfamilies of Wagner & Beitel 1992), and recognizing as sections the genera of Wagner & Beitel (1992). Øllgaard states that the “genera are very distinct, and also the sections within Lycopodiella and Lycopodium seem to represent ancient, independent evolutionary lines”; later, Øllgaard has elevated the sections to generic rank (Øllgaard & Windisch 2014). Wikström & Kenrick (2000, 2001) suggest that the phylogenetic separation of Lycopodium (including Diphasiastrum) and Lycopodiella (including Pseudolycopodiella and Palhinhaea) occurred at least as long ago as the early Jurassic (208 million years before present), and the divergence of Huperzia from Lycopodium and Lycopodiella still longer ago. Based on this deep division between Huperzia and the other genera, some authors additionally advocate the recognition of Huperzia in a separate family, Huperziaceae, an opinion followed here.
REFERENCE: Lellinger (1985); Mickel (1979); Wagner and Beitel (1992); Beitel (1979); Snyder & Bruce (1986); Wagner & Beitel in FNA (1993b); Øllgaard in Kramer & Green (1990); Wikström & Kenrick (2000, 2001); Øllgaard (1987); Haines (2003a). Key based in part on Haines (2003a).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Lycopodiella Holub (Clubmoss)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 15-20 species, temperate and tropical. Additional research on this genus in our area is needed. Two fertile tetraploid species were recently named from MI (Bruce, Wagner, & Beitel 1991), and additional cryptic or semicryptic species may be found in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. This group is variously treated as genus Lycopodiella, or as Lycopodiella section Lycopodiella (Øllgaard in Kramer & Green 1990, Wikström & Kenrick 2000), with a strong trend towards generic rank.
REFERENCE: Wagner & Beitel in FNA (1993b); Zhang & Iwatsuki in FoC (2013); Øllgaard in Kramer & Green (1990); Wikström & Kenrick (2000); Haines (2002a, 2003a, 2003b)=Z; Øllgaard (2012a). [also see Pseudolycopodiella]

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Lycopodiella alopecuroides in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Lycopodiella alopecuroides in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Lycopodiella alopecuroides in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Lycopodiella alopecuroides in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Lycopodiella alopecuroides in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Lycopodiella alopecuroides

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 12984
ID IMAGE2: 12984
ID IMAGE3: 0

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 17

Image ID: 15507

Image ID: 11461
4 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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