Plant Index


 
 
 

Lobelia cardinalis

Lobelia cardinalis L.

cardinal flower, cardinalflower

Synonym(s): Lobelia cardinalis ssp. graminea, Lobelia cardinalis var. graminea, Lobelia cardinalis var. meridionalis, Lobelia cardinalis var. multiflora, Lobelia cardinalis var. phyllostachya, Lobelia cardinalis var. propinqua, Lobelia cardinalis var. pseudosplendens, Lobelia fulgens, Lobelia splendens
Cultivar(s): Perry's White
Lobelia cardinalis (Cardinal Flower)
Image ID: 19468
Image by: Stuart, Will
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: LOCA2
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lobelia cardinalis
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-01-04

CULTIVAR INDEX

Cult_id Cultivar_name Action
1425 Perry's White View

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: LOBEL
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Lobelia
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Lobelia
GENUS SUMMARY: (contributed by D.D. Spaulding, T.W. Barger, and B.A. Sorrie)
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Vegetative Lobelia can be recognized by their milky sap, and the alternate leaves with obscure, whitish, callus-tipped, and often irregular or divergent teeth.
GENUS REFERENCES: Spaulding & Barger (in prep.)=X; Rosatti (1986)=Z; McVaugh (1936)=Y; Thompson & Lammers (1997); Lammers in Kadereit & Jeffrey (2007). Key based in part on X, Y, and GW.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: CAMPAN
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Campanulaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Bellflower Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 80-82 genera and 2000-2400 species, mostly herbs, cosmopolitan. There is controversy about the circumscription of the family, specifically whether subfamily Lobelioideae should be recognized at the family level. Recent phylogenetic studies of the Campanuloideae also suggest that substantial rearrangements of generic boundaries will be needed (Crowl et al. 2014).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Rosatti (1986)=Z; Crowl et al. (2014); Eddie et al. (2003); Shulkina, Gaskin, & Eddie (2003); Lammers in Kadereit & Jeffrey (2007). [also see SPHENOCLEACEAE]

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial found in marshes, moist meadows, swamp forests and on stream banks.
STEMS: Stems stout, smooth, mostly unbranched.
LEAVES: Leaves alternate, petiolate (but reduced upward), lance-shaped to lance-oval, 4–5 in. long, with toothed margins.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in a tall, terminal spike; brilliant red; bilaterally symmetric, with two spreading lips, the upper lip 2-lobed and with a protruding, gray-tipped filament tube, and the lower lip split into 3 long, lance-elliptic lobes.
FRUITS: Fruit an oval to round capsule.
COMMENTS: Hummingbirds and long-tongued butterflies famously visit these flowers.
HEIGHT: 2-4 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Bilateral (Zygomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: May-October
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Red
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bogs/pocosins, Bottomlands
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Green rosettes of foliage produce stalks of brilliant red flowers in late summer. This southeastern native perennial is very attractive to hummingbirds that drink the nectar from the flowers. Cardinal flower is a perennial favorite because of its beauty and versatility. In the wild, it is found in open meadows and alongside streams. It will add beauty and drama to your perennial border or shade garden. Be sure to keep the winter rosettes free of leaves and mulch. 1982-1983, 2001 N.C. Wildflower of the Year.

Bloom Table Text: Green rosettes of foliage produce stalks of brilliant red flowers in late summer. This southeastern native perennial is very attractive to hummingbirds that drink the nectar from the flowers. Cardinal flower is a perennial favorite because of its beauty and versatility. In the wild, it is found in open meadows and alongside streams. It will add beauty and drama to your perennial border or shade garden. Be sure to keep the winter rosettes free of leaves and mulch. 1982-1983, 2001 N.C. Wildflower of the Year.

NCBG Location: Throughout NCBG Landscapes

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE: 1, 4
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Hummingbird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
93 2012-0065 2012-06-06 94 View
123 2012-0097 2012-11-15 124 View
1332 1986-1107 View
1969 1986-1760 View
2096 1986-1897 View
2203 1986-2019 View
2469 1986-2313 View
3900 1992-0046 View
4049 1992-0205 View
5700 1995-0826 View
7613 2000-0376 2000-11-20 View
8202 2004-0220 2006-05-19 View
8203 2004-0221 2006-05-19 View
9398 2021-0056 2021-05-17 0 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
94 HORT 2011-11-07 Liloia View
124 HORT Wilbur-Brooks View
485 SOS 2015-09-17 Dakar View
1011 HORT 2005-01-01 Bryan View
1086 HORT 2005-10-04 Bryan View
1088 HORT 2005-11-16 Bryan View
1095 HORT 2006-10-01 Bryan View
1100 HORT 2006-01-01 View
1161 HORT 2006-11-01 Bryan View
1429 HORT 2006-09-08 Liloia View
2295 NPMD 2019-10-15 Touloupas View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
126 93 16 Liloia 2012-05-31 View
127 93 17 Liloia 2012-05-31 View
128 93 19 Liloia 2012-05-31 View
129 93 12 NCBG staff 2012-07-01 View
130 93 15 Liloia 2012-06-18 View
227 123 35 Mixon 2012-10-01 View
2314 1332 94 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3153 1969 6 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
3492 2096 11 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3493 2096 80 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3494 2096 187 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3495 2096 189 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3814 2203 53 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
4189 2469 142 NCBG staff 1967-01-01 View
4190 2469 9 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4191 2469 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4192 2469 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4193 2469 141 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
6208 3900 141 NCBG staff 1991-05-06 View
6377 4049 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
8214 5700 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
10751 7613 146 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10752 7613 8 NCBG staff 1996-03-28 View
10753 7613 141 Liloia 2002-03-18 View
10754 7613 9 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10755 7613 9 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10756 7613 81 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10757 7613 8 NCBG staff 1978-11-01 View
11467 8202 81 NCBG staff 2003-07-30 View
11468 8203 81 NCBG staff 2004-01-01 View
12651 9398 19 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
12696 9398 16 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
12711 9398 12 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12791 9398 17 Liloia 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: LOCA2
USDA Common Name: Cardinalflower
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (NB, ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW OBL FACW FACW OBL OBL FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lobelia cardinalis
COMMON NAME: Cardinal Flower
SYNONYMY: [= F, G, Il, K, Mo, Pa, RAB, S, Va, W, WH3, WV, X, Y; > L. cardinalis var. cardinalis - C; > L. cardinalis ssp. cardinalis - GW; > L. cardinalis ssp. cardinalis var. cardinalis ]
PHENOLOGY: (May-) Jul-Oct.
HABITAT: Streambanks, riverbanks, marshes, swamp forests.
COMMENTS: NB, QC, ON, MN, CO, UT, and s. CA south to c. peninsular FL, TX, and south through Mexico and Central America to Colombia. See Thompson & Lammers (1997).
RANGE MAP: Lobelia cardinalis.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Campanulaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Bellflower Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 80-82 genera and 2000-2400 species, mostly herbs, cosmopolitan. There is controversy about the circumscription of the family, specifically whether subfamily Lobelioideae should be recognized at the family level. Recent phylogenetic studies of the Campanuloideae also suggest that substantial rearrangements of generic boundaries will be needed (Crowl et al. 2014).
REFERENCE: Rosatti (1986)=Z; Crowl et al. (2014); Eddie et al. (2003); Shulkina, Gaskin, & Eddie (2003); Lammers in Kadereit & Jeffrey (2007). [also see SPHENOCLEACEAE]
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Lobelia L. (Lobelia)
SUMMARY: (contributed by D.D. Spaulding, T.W. Barger, and B.A. Sorrie)
REFERENCE: Spaulding & Barger (in prep.)=X; Rosatti (1986)=Z; McVaugh (1936)=Y; Thompson & Lammers (1997); Lammers in Kadereit & Jeffrey (2007). Key based in part on X, Y, and GW.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Lobelia cardinalis in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Lobelia cardinalis in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Lobelia cardinalis in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Lobelia cardinalis in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Lobelia cardinalis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Lobelia cardinalis

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 19468
ID IMAGE2: 19468
ID IMAGE3: 12562

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74 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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