Plant Index


 
 
 
 

Lilium superbum

Lilium superbum L.

turk’s-cap lily, lily-royal

Synonym(s): Lilium canadense ssp. superbum, Lilium canadense ssp. superbum, Lilium gazarubrum, Lilium mary-henryae
Lilium superbum (Turk’s-cap Lily)
Image ID: 9272
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: LISU
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lilium superbum
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-11-29

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: LILIU
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Lilium
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Lily
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 110 species, of temperate northern hemisphere (especially e. Asia). Many taxonomic problems remain in this genus of showy ornamentals.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Adams & Dress (1982)=Z; Skinner & Sorrie (2002)=X; Wherry (1946)=Y; Skinner in FNA (2002a); Henry (1946); Tamura in Kubitzki (1998a).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: LILIAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Liliaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Lily Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: As here interpreted narrowly, the Liliaceae constitutes about 11 genera and 550 species, of the Northern Hemisphere. There has been much investigation and re-interpretation of evidence regarding the upper-level taxonomy of the Liliales, with strong suggestions that the broad Liliaceae recognized by Cronquist (1981) is artificial and polyphyletic. Cronquist (1981) himself concurs, at least to a degree: we still await a comprehensive reorganization of the lilies into several families more comparable to other recognized families of angiosperms. Dahlgren & Clifford (1982) and Dahlgren, Clifford, & Yeo (1985) synthesized an early phase in the modern revolution of monocot taxonomy. Since then, additional research, especially molecular (Duvall et al. 1993, Chase et al. 1993, Bogler & Simpson 1995, and many others more recently), has strongly validated the general lines (and many details) of Dahlgrens arrangement.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Chen et al. (2013); Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998, 2003, 2009); Tamura in Kubitzki (1998a). [also see AGAVACEAE, ALLIACEAE, ALSTROEMERIACEAE, AMARYLLIDACEAE, ASPARAGACEAE, COLCHICACEAE, HELONIADACEAE, HEMEROCALLIDACEAE, HOSTACEAE, HYACINTHACEAE, HYPOXIDACEAE, MELANTHIACEAE, NARTHECIACEAE, RUSCACEAE, SMILACACEAE, THEMIDACEAE, TOFIELDIACEAE, TRILLIACEAE, XEROPHYLLACEAE]

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial from a bulb, found in cove forests, moist ravines, blackwater stream swamps and Coastal Plain bogs.
STEMS: Stems unbranched, smooth.
LEAVES: Leaves in 6-24 whorls of 3-8 (or more) leaves each, sessile (some alternate too), lance-shaped to narrowly elliptic, to 10 in. long, smooth.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers 3-30+ in a terminal, pyramidal raceme, dangling from long stalks; yellow-orange to reddish with many brown-purple spots; 3-5 in. wide; consisting of 6 strongly recurved, lance-shaped tepals with green nectaries at their base and 6 stamens with rust-colored anthers.
FRUITS: Fruit an oval capsule.
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 3-7 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Whorled
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Jul-Aug
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Red, orange or yellow flowers
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Lilium superbum is the largest and most spectacular of the native Lilies. Up to 40 flowers have been recorded on a single plant. Each showy flower is about 3-4"across, with 6 tepals that flare outward and then curve strongly backward beyond the base of the flower. These tepals are yellowish orange or green near the base of the flower, and become orange to dark orange towards their tips. They have numerous brownish purple dots toward the throat of the flower. The flowers are commonly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet, Well-drained
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 7
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 10
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
92 2012-0064 2012-06-06 93 View
2093 1986-1893 View
4874 1994-0092 View
8672 2006-0291 2006-10-06 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
93 HORT 2008-09-17 Wilbur-Brooks View
1571 HORT 2005-09-30 Bryan View
1595 HORT 2005-09-30 Bryan View
2557 NPMD 2021-10-05 Pil View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
124 92 32 Mixon 2012-03-28 View
125 92 42 Mixon 2012-03-28 View
3484 2093 189 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
7281 4874 189 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
7282 4874 1 NCBG staff 1994-04-15 View
7283 4874 11 NCBG staff 1994-04-15 View
11885 8672 71 Heiney 2006-07-10 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: LISU
USDA Common Name: Turk's-cap Lily
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA, WV)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FACW FACW FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lilium superbum
COMMON NAME: Turk's-cap Lily, Lily-royal
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, GW, K, Pa, RAB, S, Tn, Va, W, WH3, WV, X, Y, Z; < L. superbum - G]
PHENOLOGY: Jul-Aug; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Cove forests and moist forests, moist ravines, blackwater stream swamps, Coastal plain bogs.
COMMENTS: MA and s. NY south to ne. NC, Panhandle FL, and c. MS, southward primarily in the Appalachians, but extending across the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain of VA and ne. NC, and with a similarly odd extension south of the southern terminus of the Appalachians into the Coastal Plain of GA, w. FL, AL, and MS. The plants of blackwater swamps of se. VA and ne. NC are very narrow-leaved and yellow-tepaled; this form, atypical in habitat, range, and morphology has been referred to speculatively as Lilium species 1. Further study is needed to determine whether it is a distinct taxon (species, or variety of L. superbum) or only a form.
RANGE MAP: Lilium superbum.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Liliaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Lily Family)
SUMMARY: As here interpreted narrowly, the Liliaceae constitutes about 11 genera and 550 species, of the Northern Hemisphere. There has been much investigation and re-interpretation of evidence regarding the upper-level taxonomy of the Liliales, with strong suggestions that the broad Liliaceae recognized by Cronquist (1981) is artificial and polyphyletic. Cronquist (1981) himself concurs, at least to a degree: we still await a comprehensive reorganization of the lilies into several families more comparable to other recognized families of angiosperms. Dahlgren & Clifford (1982) and Dahlgren, Clifford, & Yeo (1985) synthesized an early phase in the modern revolution of monocot taxonomy. Since then, additional research, especially molecular (Duvall et al. 1993, Chase et al. 1993, Bogler & Simpson 1995, and many others more recently), has strongly validated the general lines (and many details) of Dahlgrens arrangement.
REFERENCE: Chen et al. (2013); Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998, 2003, 2009); Tamura in Kubitzki (1998a). [also see AGAVACEAE, ALLIACEAE, ALSTROEMERIACEAE, AMARYLLIDACEAE, ASPARAGACEAE, COLCHICACEAE, HELONIADACEAE, HEMEROCALLIDACEAE, HOSTACEAE, HYACINTHACEAE, HYPOXIDACEAE, MELANTHIACEAE, NARTHECIACEAE, RUSCACEAE, SMILACACEAE, THEMIDACEAE, TOFIELDIACEAE, TRILLIACEAE, XEROPHYLLACEAE]
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Lilium L. (Lily)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 110 species, of temperate northern hemisphere (especially e. Asia). Many taxonomic problems remain in this genus of showy ornamentals.
REFERENCE: Adams & Dress (1982)=Z; Skinner & Sorrie (2002)=X; Wherry (1946)=Y; Skinner in FNA (2002a); Henry (1946); Tamura in Kubitzki (1998a).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Lilium superbum in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Lilium superbum in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Lilium superbum in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Lilium superbum in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Lilium superbum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Lilium superbum

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 9272
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 9272

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45 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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