Plant Index


 
 
 

Lindera benzoin

Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume

smooth northern spicebush, northern spicebush

Lindera benzoin (Smooth Northern Spicebush)
Image ID: 15363
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: LIBE3
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lindera benzoin
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-03-15

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: LINDE2
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Lindera
GENUS AUTHORITY: Thunb.
GENUS COMMON: Spicebush
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 100 species, trees and shrubs, of tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, and e. North America.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: The odor of Lindera leaves decreases in the fall and may not be detectable.
GENUS REFERENCES: Wofford (1983)=Z; Wofford in FNA (1997); Steyermark (1949); McCartney, Wurdack, & Moore (1989); Rohwer in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: LAURAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Lauraceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Laurel Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 50 genera and 2500-3500 species, trees and shrubs, of tropical, subtropical, and (rarely) warm temperate regions. Laurus nobilis Linnaeus, Laurel, Bay, native to the Mediterranean region of Europe and the bay leaf of commerce; planted as an ornamental and spice, especially in warmer parts of our area, but is not known to escape in our area.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Van der Werff in FNA (1997); van der Werff & Richter (1996); Rohwer in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 6-9 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub, Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: March-April
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Small yellow flowers
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Aug-Sep.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Smooth northern spicebush is a welcome harbinger of spring, featuring axillary clusters of tiny yellow flowers before the leaves appear. Female plants produce red fruits in the autumn. All parts of the plant have a lemon scent when broken, hence its common name of spicebush. Rarely offered for sale, though it is easy to grow in average to moist soil. Host plant for spicebush butterflies and supports up to 9 species of lepidoptera. Used medicinally by several tribes. Its red berries are important food for birds during fall migration.

Bloom Table Text: Smooth northern spicebush is a welcome harbinger of spring, featuring axillary clusters of tiny yellow flowers before the leaves appear. Female plants produce red fruits in the autumn. All parts of the plant have a lemon scent when broken, hence its common name of spicebush. Rarely offered for sale, though it is easy to grow in average to moist soil. Host plant for spicebush butterflies and supports up to 9 species of lepidoptera. Used medicinally by several tribes. Its red berries are important food for birds during fall migration.

NCBG Location: Education Center landscape, Habitats, Totten Center Landscape

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 4
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
2302 1986-2133 View
3118 1989-0078 View
3206 1990-0045 View
3267 1990-0117 View
3776 1991-0471 View
4501 1992-0657 View
5144 1995-0263 View
6169 1995-1301 View
6395 1996-0010 View
8714 2006-0410 2006-11-13 View
8806 2007-0076 2007-03-13 View
8847 2007-0157 2007-06-20 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
502 SOS 2015-09-23 Heraty View
518 SOS 2015-09-22 Driskill View
1372 HORT 2006-08-06 Bryan View
1444 HORT 2006-08-14 Bryan View
1724 HORT 2005-01-01 Bryan View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
3980 2302 92 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3981 2302 94 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
5186 3118 11 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
5187 3118 77 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
5188 3118 72 NCBG staff 2001-03-19 View
5189 3118 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5190 3118 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5191 3118 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5192 3118 74 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5193 3118 78 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5194 3118 187 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5195 3118 188 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5196 3118 119 NCBG staff 1967-12-01 View
5369 3206 81 NCBG staff 1989-03-01 View
5438 3267 8 NCBG staff 1982-07-08 View
6084 3776 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6829 4501 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7570 5144 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8824 6169 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9051 6395 158 NCBG staff 1995-11-01 View
11941 8714 83 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12060 8806 60 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12061 8806 65 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12062 8806 69 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12063 8806 70 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12064 8806 71 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12093 8847 77 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: LIBE3
USDA Common Name: Northern Spicebush
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV), CAN (ON)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FAC FACW FACW FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lindera benzoin
COMMON NAME: Northern Spicebush
SYNONYMY: [= FNA, GW, Mo, Pa, RAB, Va, W, WH3, WV, Z; > L. benzoin var. benzoin - C, F, G, K; > L. benzoin (Linnaeus) Blume var. pubescens (Palmer & Steyermark) Rehder = C, F, G, K; = Benzoin aestivale (Linnaeus) Nees - S]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-Apr; Aug-Sep.
HABITAT: Rich alluvial forests, mesic forests on slopes with circumneutral soils, bottomlands, swamps.
COMMENTS: ME, s. ON, and MI, south to Panhandle FL and e. TX; disjunct in Edwards Plateau of c. TX. Where occurring on upland slopes, L. benzoin is an excellent indicator of base-rich soils, generally derived from calcareous sedimentary rocks or mafic metamorphic or igneous rocks. Some floristic treatments recognize two varieties based on whether the leaves and young twigs are pubescent (var. pubescens) or not (var. benzoin) but the varieties so recognized overlap broadly in distribution; it seems best to regard this as mere variation within the species.
RANGE MAP: Lindera benzoin.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Lauraceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Laurel Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 50 genera and 2500-3500 species, trees and shrubs, of tropical, subtropical, and (rarely) warm temperate regions. Laurus nobilis Linnaeus, Laurel, Bay, native to the Mediterranean region of Europe and the bay leaf of commerce; planted as an ornamental and spice, especially in warmer parts of our area, but is not known to escape in our area.
REFERENCE: Van der Werff in FNA (1997); van der Werff & Richter (1996); Rohwer in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Lindera Thunb. (Spicebush)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 100 species, trees and shrubs, of tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, and e. North America.
REFERENCE: Wofford (1983)=Z; Wofford in FNA (1997); Steyermark (1949); McCartney, Wurdack, & Moore (1989); Rohwer in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Lindera benzoin in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Lindera benzoin in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Lindera benzoin in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Lindera benzoin in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Lindera benzoin in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Lindera benzoin

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 15363
ID IMAGE2: 7245
ID IMAGE3: 15363

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 7245

Image ID: 7246

Image ID: 8353

Image ID: 34139

Image ID: 34140

Image ID: 34187

Image ID: 34188

Image ID: 5501

Image ID: 8354

Image ID: 15362

Image ID: 34138

Image ID: 34186

Image ID: 37764

Image ID: 11413
15 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Go back