Plant Index


 
 
 

Kalmia carolina

Kalmia carolina Small

southern sheepkill, carolina bog myrtle, carolina laurel, carolina wicky

Synonym(s): Kalmia angustifolia var. carolina
Kalmia carolina (Southern Sheepkill)
Image ID: 12540
Image by: Cressler, Alan M.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: KACA2
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Kalmia carolina
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-11-08

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: KALMI
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Kalmia
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Laurel
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 9-11 species, shrubs, of North America and Cuba, except the circumboreal K. procumbens (formerly Loiseleuria). Leiophyllum, traditionally treated as a monotypic or small genus of se. United States, is better treated as a part of Kalmia along with the northern Loiseleuria, based on molecular and morphological studies (Kron & King 1996, Kron et al. 2002). While this idea may initially seem outlandish (particularly to those whose concept of Kalmia is based only on Kalmia latifolia), the morphological and habital similarities of Leiophyllum to Kalmia are striking. The foliage and wood of all species (and the smoke from burning them) are poisonous.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Liu, Denford, Ebinger, Packer, & Tucker in FNA (2009); Southall & Hardin (1974)=Z; Ebinger (1974)=Y; Strand & Wyatt (1991)=Q; Wilbur & Racine (1971)=T; Camp (1938)=P; Kron & King (1996); Kron et al. (2002)=V; Kron, Judd, & Anderberg (2008); Haines (2010)=U; Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ERICAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Ericaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Heath Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT:

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub

LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
LEAF COMPLEXITY:
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Apr-May (sporadically to Sep, especially in response to fire).
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE:
NATIVE RANGE: VA, NC, SC, TN & GA

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
88 2012-0060 2012-06-05 89 View
898 1985-0579 View
1958 1986-1746 View
2670 1987-0131 View
3937 1992-0090 View
6917 1998-0124 View
6948 1998-0157 View
6992 1998-0213 View
7072 1999-0018 1999-05-05 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
89 HORT 2006-10-19 Liloia View
1488 HORT 2006-10-19 Liloia View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
116 88 42 Mixon 2012-04-25 View
117 88 48 Mixon 2013-06-01 View
1666 898 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3128 1958 6 NCBG staff 1986-12-22 View
4482 2670 9 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6262 3937 55 NCBG staff 1992-10-21 View
9780 6917 160 NCBG staff 1997-11-07 View
9812 6948 160 NCBG staff 1998-03-11 View
9866 6992 8 NCBG staff 1996-03-05 View
9990 7072 59 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9991 7072 6 NCBG staff 1999-05-06 View
9992 7072 56 NCBG staff 1999-05-06 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: KACA2
USDA Common Name: Carolina Laurel
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (GA, NC, SC, TN, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FAC

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

2018 Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species of North Carolina

NHP IDS RANKROUNDED S RANKG RANKROUNDED G RANKSTATE STATUSFEDERAL STATUS
18061 S4 S4 G4 G4 W6

This information is derived from the 2018 North Carolina Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species.

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Kalmia carolina
COMMON NAME: Southern Sheepkill, Carolina Wicky, Carolina Bog Myrtle
SYNONYMY: [= GW, K, S, Va, W, Z; = K. angustifolia Linnaeus var. caroliniana (Small) Fernald - RAB (an orthographic error); = K. angustifolia var. carolina (Small) Fernald - C, F, FNA, G, L, Y; = K. angustifolia ssp. carolina (Small) A. Haines - U]
PHENOLOGY: Apr-May (sporadically to Sep, especially in response to fire); Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Moist to wet pinelands of the Coastal Plain, pocosin margins (or seemingly in pocosins or swamps because of fire suppression), mountain bogs and fens (and less commonly in rocky areas at high elevations) in the Mountains.
COMMENTS: This species, a close relative of the more widespread and northern K. angustifolia, occurs in two disjunct areas: the Coastal Plain, from se. VA south through NC to wc. GA (Taylor County), and the Southern Appalachians from sw. VA south through w. NC and ne. TN to ne. GA. Southall & Hardin (1974) favored species status for K. carolina because of its essentially allopatric distribution relative to K. angustifolia (the 2 meet in Southampton County, VA), the near absence of intermediates or hybrids in nature, and because significant morphological and anatomical differences have developed and remain constant between these two species when grown together.
RANGE MAP: Kalmia carolina.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ericaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Heath Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Kalmia L. (Laurel)
SUMMARY: A genus of 9-11 species, shrubs, of North America and Cuba, except the circumboreal K. procumbens (formerly Loiseleuria). Leiophyllum, traditionally treated as a monotypic or small genus of se. United States, is better treated as a part of Kalmia along with the northern Loiseleuria, based on molecular and morphological studies (Kron & King 1996, Kron et al. 2002). While this idea may initially seem outlandish (particularly to those whose concept of Kalmia is based only on Kalmia latifolia), the morphological and habital similarities of Leiophyllum to Kalmia are striking. The foliage and wood of all species (and the smoke from burning them) are poisonous.
REFERENCE: Liu, Denford, Ebinger, Packer, & Tucker in FNA (2009); Southall & Hardin (1974)=Z; Ebinger (1974)=Y; Strand & Wyatt (1991)=Q; Wilbur & Racine (1971)=T; Camp (1938)=P; Kron & King (1996); Kron et al. (2002)=V; Kron, Judd, & Anderberg (2008); Haines (2010)=U; Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Kalmia carolina in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Kalmia carolina in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Kalmia carolina in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Kalmia carolina in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Kalmia carolina in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Kalmia carolina

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 12540
ID IMAGE2: 7578
ID IMAGE3: 12540

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37 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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