Plant Index


 
 
 

Ilex opaca

Ilex opaca Aiton

american holly, christmas holly

Cultivar(s): Cave Hill #1, Clarendon Spreading, Corpening No. 2, Croonenberg, Dan Fenton, Farage, Hedgeholly, Jersey Princess, Little's Emerald Green, Little's Ruby Fire, Maryland Dwarf, Perle LeClair, Plaza School, Rake Pond, Sallie, St. Mary, Taber #2, Tinga, Waxy Splendor, Witchesbroom
Ilex opaca (American Holly)
Image ID: 2551
Image by: Gardner, Rob
Image Collection: Herbarium Collection

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: ILOP
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Ilex opaca
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-09-26

CULTIVAR INDEX

Cult_id Cultivar_name Action
538 Cave Hill #1 View
208 Clarendon Spreading View
539 Corpening No. 2 View
540 Croonenberg View
537 Dan Fenton View
541 Farage View
542 Hedgeholly View
543 Jersey Princess View
1690 Little's Emerald Green View
1684 Little's Ruby Fire View
54 Maryland Dwarf View
544 Perle LeClair View
545 Plaza School View
546 Rake Pond View
547 Sallie View
548 St. Mary View
549 Taber #2 View
550 Tinga View
1691 Waxy Splendor View
551 Witchesbroom View

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: ILEX
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Ilex
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Holly
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 400-500 species, mostly trees and shrubs, cosmopolitan and widespread in tropical and temperate areas, especially Asia and America. The genus Nemopanthus is clearly best subsumed into Ilex.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Some of our species can be superficially similar to various shrubs and trees of the Rosaceae, in their alternate toothed leaves borne on spur shoots.
GENUS REFERENCES: Godfrey (1988)=Y; Krakow (1989)=Z; Powell et al. (2000)=X; Wunderlin & Poppleton (1977).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: AQUIFO
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Aquifoliaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Bartling 1830
FAMILY COMMON: Holly Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A monogeneric family of about 500 species, nearly cosmopolitan.
FAMILY REFERENCE:

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 15-30 ft. tall, spread 10-20 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub, Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Evergreen

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Apr-June
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Tiny white flowers showy fruit
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE:
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: American holly is an evergreen shrub with dark green leaves. This holly is dioecious (plants are either male or female). The female shrubs have red berries. A male shrub is needed with one male to every three females ideal. Males should be within 200 feet of females. American holly is the larval host plant for Henrys Elfin butterfly and the Ilex genus supports up to 34 species of lepidoptera. The flowers are good for pollinators and the berries for birds and small mammals.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 5
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
654 1985-0289 View
655 1985-0290 View
656 1985-0291 View
657 1985-0292 View
659 1985-0294 View
661 1985-0296 View
662 1985-0297 View
663 1985-0298 View
664 1985-0299 View
665 1985-0300 View
666 1985-0301 View
1949 1986-1736 View
2288 1986-2119 View
2502 1986-2360 View
3695 1991-0390 View
4535 1992-0691 View
4777 1993-0067 View
4778 1993-0068 View
4959 1995-0077 View
5139 1995-0258 View
5446 1995-0569 View
5912 1995-1040 View
7383 2000-0126 2000-04-04 View
7650 2001-0004 2001-02-26 View
7786 2001-0142 2001-07-05 View
8097 2004-0105 View
8098 2004-0106 View
8553 2006-0131 2006-07-24 View
8724 2006-0420 2006-11-15 View
8813 2007-0083 2007-03-13 View
8889 2011-0039 2011-01-31 1899 View
8895 2011-0221 2011-11-04 1905 View
8896 2011-0040 2011-01-01 1906 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
556 SOS 2015-10-14 Heraty View
592 SOS 2015-10-22 Dakar View
627 SOS 2015-11-11 Driskill View
1899 HORT 2011-01-01 Gocke View
1905 HORT 2011-01-01 Gocke View
1906 HORT 2011-01-01 Gocke View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
999 8889 23 Neal 2011-10-25 View
1010 8895 34 Liloia 2011-11-03 View
1324 654 155 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1325 654 158 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1326 654 164 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1327 654 165 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1328 654 177 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1329 654 168 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
1330 655 157 NCBG staff 1980-05-05 View
1331 656 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1332 657 155 NCBG staff 1980-05-05 View
1334 659 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1336 661 155 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1337 661 162 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1338 662 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1339 662 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1340 662 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1341 662 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1342 663 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1343 664 157 NCBG staff 1978-11-09 View
1344 665 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1345 666 198 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3108 1949 53 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
3109 1949 6 NCBG staff 1986-12-22 View
3110 1949 57 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3963 2288 94 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4257 2502 140 NCBG staff 2001-06-07 View
5999 3695 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6863 4535 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7144 4777 27 NCBG staff 1993-07-07 View
7145 4778 27 NCBG staff 1993-07-07 View
7378 4959 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7565 5139 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7960 5446 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8461 5912 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8462 5912 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8463 5912 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
10375 7383 114 NCBG staff 2000-03-01 View
10828 7650 60 NCBG staff 1996-01-01 View
10990 7786 136 NCBG staff 1980-01-01 View
11361 8097 159 NCBG staff 2003-04-06 View
11362 8098 159 NCBG staff 2003-04-06 View
11954 8724 95 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12071 8813 71 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12239 8553 23 Liloia 2011-10-25 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: ILOP
USDA Common Name: American Holly
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FAC FACU FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Ilex opaca
COMMON NAME: American Holly, Christmas Holly
SYNONYMY: [= S; = I. opaca var. opaca - GW, K2, WH3, Va, Y; < I. opaca - C, F, G, Il, Pa, RAB, W, WV]
PHENOLOGY: Apr-Jun; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: In a wide variety of forests, ranging from xeric to wetland.
COMMENTS: MA (? NS and ME), IL, MO, and OK south to s. peninsular FL and TX. This is our only species of Ilex that becomes a medium to large tree.
RANGE MAP: Ilex opaca.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Aquifoliaceae Bartling 1830 (Holly Family)
SUMMARY: A monogeneric family of about 500 species, nearly cosmopolitan.
REFERENCE:
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Ilex L. (Holly)
SUMMARY: A genus of 400-500 species, mostly trees and shrubs, cosmopolitan and widespread in tropical and temperate areas, especially Asia and America. The genus Nemopanthus is clearly best subsumed into Ilex.
REFERENCE: Godfrey (1988)=Y; Krakow (1989)=Z; Powell et al. (2000)=X; Wunderlin & Poppleton (1977).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Ilex opaca in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Ilex opaca in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Ilex opaca in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Ilex opaca in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Ilex opaca in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Ilex opaca

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 2551
ID IMAGE2: 7168
ID IMAGE3: 23502

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