Plant Index


 
 
 

Hexastylis minor

Hexastylis minor (Ashe) Blomquist

little heartleaf

Synonym(s): Asarum minus
Hexastylis minor (Little Heartleaf)
Image ID: 7172
Image by: Parkins, Grant Morrow
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: HEMI13
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Hexastylis minor
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2017-12-13

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: HEXAS
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Hexastylis
GENUS AUTHORITY: Raf.
GENUS COMMON: Heartleaf
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: The photograph (Figure 1) in Gaddy (1987a) of the flowers of all species other than H. arifolia and H. speciosa is highly recommended as an aid to identification. The calyx tube orifice is measured on the inside the diameter of the opening. The width of calyx lobes is measured from sinus tip to sinus tip.
GENUS REFERENCES: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ARISTO
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Aristolochiaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A. L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Birthwort Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Low-growing, stemless, rhizomatous perennial found in upland or moist forests.
STEMS:
LEAVES: Leaves on long petioles arising directly from a rhizome, heart- to kidney-shaped, 1½-3 in. long, variegated, evergreen-leathery, with a spicy smell when torn.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers arise from the rhizome on such short stalks that they are often hidden beneath leaf litter. They are maroon-red outside and in; about ½ in. long; weakly bell-shaped and prominently flared at or above the middle of the tube, with strongly spreading, widely triangular lobes (the lobes often mottled with white); firm-fleshy and prominently ridged-reticulate within.
FRUITS: Fruit a round, fleshy capsule.
COMMENTS: Endemic to the Piedmont and adjacent Coastal Plain and Mountains of nc. VA, NC, and nc. SC.
HEIGHT: 3-6 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate, Basal
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Feb-May
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Maroon-red
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: VA, NC & SC

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
356 2011-0228 2011-11-04 360 View
2079 1986-1878 View
2444 1986-2285 View
3969 1992-0125 View
5131 1995-0250 View
5921 1995-1049 View
6776 1996-0441 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
360 HORT 2003-05-20 Liloia View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
870 356 15 Steen 2011-11-03 View
3454 2079 11 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3455 2079 74 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3456 2079 75 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3457 2079 76 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3458 2079 78 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3459 2079 188 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3460 2079 72 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
4152 2444 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4153 2444 142 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
6297 3969 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7557 5131 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8473 5921 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8474 5921 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8475 5921 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8476 5921 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
9581 6776 137 NCBG staff 1996-01-01 View
9582 6776 1 NCBG staff 1996-12-16 View
9583 6776 8 NCBG staff 1996-12-16 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: HEMI13
USDA Common Name: Little Heartleaf
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (NC, SC, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Hexastylis minor
COMMON NAME: Little Heartleaf
SYNONYMY: [= FNA, K, RAB, Va, W, Z; < Asarum virginicum Linnaeus - F; < H. virginica - C, G, S; = Asarum minus Ashe; = Hexastylis minus - Y, a grammatical error]
PHENOLOGY: Feb-May.
HABITAT: Upland or moist forests.
COMMENTS: Endemic to the Piedmont and adjacent Coastal Plain and Mountains of nc. VA, NC, and nc. SC.
RANGE MAP: Hexastylis minor.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Aristolochiaceae A. L. de Jussieu 1789 (Birthwort Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Hexastylis Raf. (Heartleaf)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
REFERENCE: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Hexastylis minor in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Hexastylis minor in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Hexastylis minor in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Hexastylis minor in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Hexastylis minor in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Hexastylis minor

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 7172
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 4637

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16 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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