Plant Index


 
 
 
 

Hexastylis lewisii

Hexastylis lewisii (Fernald) Blomquist & Oosting

lewis’ heartleaf, lewis’s heartleaf

Synonym(s): Asarum lewisii

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: HELE2
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Hexastylis lewisii
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-03-18

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: HEXAS
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Hexastylis
GENUS AUTHORITY: Raf.
GENUS COMMON: Heartleaf
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: The photograph (Figure 1) in Gaddy (1987a) of the flowers of all species other than H. arifolia and H. speciosa is highly recommended as an aid to identification. The calyx tube orifice is measured on the inside the diameter of the opening. The width of calyx lobes is measured from sinus tip to sinus tip.
GENUS REFERENCES: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ARISTO
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Aristolochiaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A. L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Birthwort Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 4-12

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY:
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Apr-May
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: Virginia & North Carolina

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Native to the lower Piedmont and upper coastal plain of North Carolina and Virginia, this species of Hexastylis is unique in that it forms long rhizomatous patches (up to 3 feet in 5 years) as opposed to the clumping form displayed by other species in this genus. The spreading nature of Hexastylis lewisii makes for a great ground cover option in a shady part of the garden. The flower, though hard to see without close inspection, is dark purple, thimble-sized and very hairy!

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 5a
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9b
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE: High

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
34 2017-0037 2018-12-21 37 View
2565 1986-2457 View
3110 1989-0069 View
3441 1991-0081 View
5920 1995-1048 View
9114 2006-0082 0000-00-00 1801 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
37 HORT Harville View
1801 HORT Moore View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
44 34 15 NCBG staff 2017-05-02 View
45 34 18 NCBG staff 2017-05-02 View
4338 2565 6 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
4339 2565 136 NCBG staff 2001-06-07 View
4340 2565 27 NCBG staff 2001-02-08 View
5172 3110 74 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
8472 5920 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
11725 9114 66 NCBG staff 2003-03-09 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: HELE2
USDA Common Name: Lewis' Heartleaf
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (NC, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

2018 Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species of North Carolina

NHP IDS RANKROUNDED S RANKG RANKROUNDED G RANKSTATE STATUSFEDERAL STATUS
17829 S3 S3 G3 G3 W1

This information is derived from the 2018 North Carolina Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species.

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Hexastylis lewisii
COMMON NAME: Lewis's Heartleaf
SYNONYMY: [= FNA, K, RAB, Va, Y, Z; < H. shuttleworthii - C; = Asarum lewisii Fernald - F]
PHENOLOGY: Apr-May.
HABITAT: Upland forests (pine or oak), pocosin ecotones.
COMMENTS: Endemic to the Piedmont of VA and the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of NC.
RANGE MAP: Hexastylis lewisii.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Aristolochiaceae A. L. de Jussieu 1789 (Birthwort Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Hexastylis Raf. (Heartleaf)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
REFERENCE: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Hexastylis lewisii in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Hexastylis lewisii in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Hexastylis lewisii in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Hexastylis lewisii in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Hexastylis lewisii in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Hexastylis lewisii

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 0
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 0

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 11270
1 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Go back