Plant Index


 
 
 

Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia

Hexastylis arifolia (Michx.) Small var. arifolia

arrowleaf heartleaf, little brown jug

Synonym(s): Asarum arifolium
Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia (Arrowleaf Heartleaf)
Image ID: 20991
Image by: Cressler, Alan M.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: HEARA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2017-07-19

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: HEXAS
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Hexastylis
GENUS AUTHORITY: Raf.
GENUS COMMON: Heartleaf
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: The photograph (Figure 1) in Gaddy (1987a) of the flowers of all species other than H. arifolia and H. speciosa is highly recommended as an aid to identification. The calyx tube orifice is measured on the inside the diameter of the opening. The width of calyx lobes is measured from sinus tip to sinus tip.
GENUS REFERENCES: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ARISTO
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Aristolochiaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A. L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Birthwort Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Low-growing, aculescent perennial from short, stout rhizomes; found in dry to moist deciduous forests, primarily in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont.
STEMS:
LEAVES: Leaves on long petioles, triangular to arrowhead-shaped, to 8 in. long and 6 in. wide, often variegated, evergreen-leathery and smooth; exude a spicy smell when torn.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers arise from the underground stem on such short peduncles that they are often hidden beneath leaf litter; greenish or purplish outside with dark red-purple inside, urn-shaped with 3 short, spreading triangular-pointy lobes, fleshy-firm.
FRUITS: Fruit a round, fleshy capsule.
COMMENTS: Two other varieties (var. callifolia and var. ruthii) . . . .?
HEIGHT: 2-6 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Mar-May
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: greenish-purple
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE:

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
194 2011-0005 2011-01-04 193 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
193 HORT 2008-05-05 Keith View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
378 194 25 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: HEARA
USDA Common Name: Littlebrownjug
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia
COMMON NAME: Little Brown Jug, Arrowleaf Heartleaf
SYNONYMY: [= C, FNA, K, Tn, Va, W, Y, Z; = Asarum arifolium Michaux - F; = H. arifolia - G, S; < H. arifolia - RAB; < Asarum arifolium Michaux - Fl, WH3; = Asarum arifolium Michaux var. arifolium - X]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-May.
HABITAT: Dry to mesic deciduous forests.
COMMENTS: Se. VA, sw. VA, se. TN, and n. AL south to se. GA (Carter, Baker, & Morris 2009), Panhandle FL, s. MS, and se. LA, primarily on the Coastal Plain and Piedmont.
RANGE MAP: Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Aristolochiaceae A. L. de Jussieu 1789 (Birthwort Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Hexastylis Raf. (Heartleaf)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
REFERENCE: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 20991
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 20991

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 20992

Image ID: 24587
3 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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