Plant Index


 
 
 

Hexastylis arifolia

Hexastylis arifolia (Michx.) Small

little brown jug, arrowleaf heartleaf

Hexastylis arifolia (Little Brown Jug)
Image ID: 2586
Image by: Gardner, Rob
Image Collection: Herbarium Collection

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: HEAR6
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Hexastylis arifolia
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-08-28

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: HEXAS
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Hexastylis
GENUS AUTHORITY: Raf.
GENUS COMMON: Heartleaf
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: The photograph (Figure 1) in Gaddy (1987a) of the flowers of all species other than H. arifolia and H. speciosa is highly recommended as an aid to identification. The calyx tube orifice is measured on the inside the diameter of the opening. The width of calyx lobes is measured from sinus tip to sinus tip.
GENUS REFERENCES: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ARISTO
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Aristolochiaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A. L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Birthwort Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Low-growing, stemless perennial from short, stout rhizomes; found in dry to moist deciduous forests, primarily in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont.
STEMS:
LEAVES: Leaves on long petioles, triangular to arrowhead-shaped, to 8 in. long and 6 in. wide, often variegated, evergreen-leathery and smooth; exude a spicy smell when torn.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers arise from the underground stem/rhizome on such short stalks and are often hidden beneath leaf litter; they are greenish or purplish outside with dark brownish-purple inside, urn-shaped with 3 short, spreading triangular-pointy lobes, and fleshy-firm.
FRUITS: Fruit a round, fleshy capsule.
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 2-6 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate, Basal
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Evergreen

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: Mar-May
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Greenish-purple
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: southeastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE:
LIGHT EXPOSURE:
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
143 2010-0058 2010-11-25 144 View
354 2011-0226 2011-11-04 358 View
2078 1986-1876 View
2285 1986-2116 View
2286 1986-2117 View
2443 1986-2284 View
3968 1992-0124 View
4863 1994-0077 View
4951 1995-0069 View
5129 1995-0248 View
5450 1995-0573 View
5919 1995-1047 View
7518 2000-0278 2000-09-19 View
7574 2000-0337 2000-10-10 View
8188 2004-0204 2006-05-19 View
8642 2006-0242 2006-09-01 View
8713 2006-0407 2006-11-07 View
9251 2019-0010 2019-06-26 1964 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
144 HORT 2010-11-24 Liloia View
358 HORT 2009-06-01 Poythress View
1454 HORT 2007-05-29 View
1964 HORT 2017-03-25 Gocke View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
280 143 15 Heiney 2011-05-17 View
861 354 12 Steen 2011-11-03 View
862 354 15 Liloia 2012-06-19 View
863 354 25 Liloia 2012-06-19 View
864 354 24 Liloia 2012-06-19 View
3442 2078 11 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3443 2078 72 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3444 2078 73 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3445 2078 74 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3446 2078 75 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3447 2078 76 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3448 2078 77 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3449 2078 78 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3450 2078 80 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3451 2078 187 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3452 2078 188 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3453 2078 8 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3959 2285 98 NCBG staff 1985-11-26 View
3960 2285 98 NCBG staff 1985-11-26 View
3961 2286 81 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4151 2443 27 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
6296 3968 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7266 4863 27 NCBG staff 1994-06-20 View
7370 4951 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7555 5129 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7964 5450 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8471 5919 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
10555 7518 119 NCBG staff 1996-05-15 View
10658 7574 1 NCBG staff 1998-01-01 View
10659 7574 71 NCBG staff 2000-01-01 View
10660 7574 170 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
10661 7574 136 NCBG staff 1999-05-04 View
10662 7574 166 NCBG staff 1999-05-04 View
11451 8188 219 NCBG staff 2004-07-01 View
11857 8642 138 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
11936 8713 133 NCBG staff 2006-10-31 View
11937 8713 132 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
11938 8713 137 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12374 9251 145 Liloia 2019-04-24 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: HEAR6
USDA Common Name: Littlebrownjug
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FAC FAC

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME:
COMMON NAME:
SYNONYMY:
PHENOLOGY:
HABITAT:
COMMENTS:
RANGE MAP:

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Aristolochiaceae A. L. de Jussieu 1789 (Birthwort Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions.
REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Hexastylis Raf. (Heartleaf)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 11 species, herbs, of se. North America, very possibly best expanded to include Asian taxa treated in Heterotropa and Asiasarum. Barringer (1993) and Kelly (1997, 1998) have recently employed a broad definition of Asarum, including Hexastylis. Over the last half-century various students of the group (emphasizing a range of fields of evidence) have arrayed themselves for and against the recognition of Hexastylis as a genus distinct from Asarum. A cladistic analysis (Kelly 1997, 1998) showed distinctive clades which could be interpreted as evidence for the recognition of Hexastylis (including the Asian Heterotropa), though the author preferred to recognize 2 subgenera. I choose here to follow the more traditional (at least in our area) separation of Hexastylis from Asarum, until and unless stronger evidence is presented for their combination. Electrophoretic and morphologic studies currently in progress validate the species / varietal level taxonomy presented, insofar as results are available (Z. Murrell, pers. comm., 2013; R. Wyatt, pers. comm.). A difficult genus, Hexastylis is made more frustrating by the fact that nearly all diagnostic features relate to the shape and size of the fleshy and brittle calyx characters which are difficult to describe and are largely lost when specimens are pressed. The difficulty of identifying herbarium specimens has sometimes been (apparently) used as a justification for reducing (often drastically, as in Cronquist) the number of taxa recognized. To those familiar with this genus in the field, however, the taxa here recognized form geographically distinctive populations. Size and (to a lesser degree) shape of individual flowers show considerable variation and can be altered by environmental factors; individual flowers or plants can be difficult to identify if taken out of context. Populations, however, are usually readily identifiable.
REFERENCE: Whittemore & Gaddy in FNA (1997); Gaddy (1987a)=Z; Blomquist (1957)=Y; Barringer (1993)=X; Keener & Davenport (2015)=V; Gaddy (1987b); Gaddy (1986); Gaddy in Wofford (1989); Sugawara (1987); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key adapted from FNA, Gaddy in Wofford (1989), and Gaddy (1987a).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Hexastylis arifolia in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Hexastylis arifolia in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Hexastylis arifolia in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Hexastylis arifolia in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Hexastylis arifolia in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Hexastylis arifolia

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 2586
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 21591

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17 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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