Plant Index


 
 
 

Gentiana autumnalis

Gentiana autumnalis L.

pine barren gentian, pinebarren gentian

Synonym(s): Dasystephana porphyrio, Gentiana porphyrio
Gentiana autumnalis (Pine Barren Gentian)
Image ID: 19340
Image by: Stuart, Will
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: GEAU4
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Gentiana autumnalis
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2017-12-11

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: GENTI
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Gentiana
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Gentian
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 350-400 species, herbs, primarily temperate and arctic. Even following the removal of Gentianopsis and Gentianella (to separate genera and a different subtribe), Gentiana is a large and apparently heterogeneous group, perhaps not monophyletic. No satisfactory comprehensive treatment is available, however. All of the species treated here as Gentiana are in the distinctive group often treated as section, subgenus, or genus Pneumonanthe.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification Notes: In some species it may be somewhat difficult to interpret the corolla lobes and the corolla appendages. The filaments are alternate to the corolla lobes, and are therefore attached to the lower portion of the corolla appendages.
GENUS REFERENCES: Pringle (1967)=Z; Halda (1996)=Y; Ho & Liu (2001)=X; Pringle & Weakley (2009)=Q; Ho & Liu (1990); Yuan, Küpfer, & Doyle (1996); Pringle (1977). Key adapted from Z.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: GENTIA
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Gentianaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Gentian Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 87 genera and about 1650 species, herbs, shrubs, and trees, cosmopolitan (Struwe & Albert 2002).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Ho & Liu (1999); Wood & Weaver (1982); Struwe & Albert (2002). [also see MENYANTHACEAE]

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial of longleaf pine savannas, pine flatwoods, sandhills, and pine barrens in a variety of sites varying from moist to very dry; in se. VA, NC, and SC nearly always associated with Pinus palustris and/or Aristida stricta.
STEMS: Stem smooth, rarely branched.
LEAVES: Leaves opposite, few, linear to narrowly oblong-lance-shaped, 2-3 in. long and curved parallel to ground..
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers solitary (rarely 2-3) and terminal, deep blue and spotted-streaked with bronze-green inside, to 2 in. long, funnel-shaped, with the corolla tube divided into 4-5 spreading lobes with pleats in between.
FRUITS: Fruit an ellipsoid capsule.
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 6-24 in.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Opposite
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: late Sep-mid Jan
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Blue
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Pine savannas, Sandhills
NATIVE RANGE: southeastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Pine-barren gentian is endemic to the pine barrens of New Jersey and Delaware and the coastal plain of the Carolinas. Once thought to be of limited occurrence, increased use of prescribed fire in longleaf pine ecosystem management has revealed this species local abundance. Pine-barren gentian’s bright blue flower petals open outward to expose the sexual organs of the flower unlike the bottle-type gentians. Except for its relatively large flower, one might not notice the pine-barren gentian in passing.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Average, Moist/Wet, Well-drained
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 7
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 8
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
46 2014-0002 2014-02-04 48 View
335 2011-0203 2011-10-12 339 View
2178 1986-1990 View
2468 1986-2312 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
48 HORT View
339 HORT 2010-12-21 Poythress View
1447 HORT 2006-12-21 Wilbur-Brooks View
1872 HORT Walker View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
60 46 58 Liloia 2013-02-03 View
61 46 54 Liloia 2013-02-03 View
803 335 41 Poythress 2011-10-04 View
804 335 44 Poythress 2011-10-04 View
805 335 37 Poythress 2011-10-04 View
806 335 36 Poythress 2011-10-04 View
807 335 39 Poythress 2011-10-04 View
808 335 6 Liloia 2013-12-01 View
809 335 64 Liloia 2013-12-01 View
3756 2178 54 NCBG staff 1986-12-23 View
3757 2178 55 NCBG staff 1986-12-23 View
4188 2468 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: GEAU4
USDA Common Name: Pine Barren Gentian
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (DE, GA, MD, NC, NJ, SC, VA)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Gentiana autumnalis
COMMON NAME: Pinebarren Gentian
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, GW, K1, K3, RAB, Va, X, Z; = Gentiana porphyrio J.F. Gmelin - G; = Dasystephana porphyrio (J.F. Gmelin) Small - S; = Gentiana autumnalis ssp. autumnalis - Y; = Pneumonanthe porphyrio (Linnaeus) Greene]
PHENOLOGY:
HABITAT: Longleaf pine savannas, pine flatwoods, sandhills, pine barrens, in a variety of sites varying from moist to very xeric, in se. VA, NC, and SC nearly always associated with Pinus palustris and/or Aristida stricta.
COMMENTS: Late Sep-mid Jan (rarely at other times of the year, such as spring, in response to fire). This species is a bimodal endemic, occurring in s. NJ and adjacent DE (at least formerly), and from se. VA south through e. NC to nc. SC. The related G. pennelliana Fernald (sometimes reduced to a subspecies of G. autumnalis) is endemic to the FL Panhandle; other siblings, G. bicuspidata (G. Don) Briquet, G. hooperi Pringle, and G. longicollis G.L. Nesom, occur in Mexico. G. autumnalis is often overlooked, since it is very inconspicuous except when in flower, it usually flowers at a season when few botanists are about, and sterile plants greatly outnumber fertile ones. Vegetatively it is extremely distinctive once learned; the leaves are glossy, dark-green, opposite, oblanceolate to oblinear, and twisted and curved in a manner reminiscent of an airplane propellor.
RANGE MAP: Gentiana autumnalis.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Gentianaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Gentian Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 87 genera and about 1650 species, herbs, shrubs, and trees, cosmopolitan (Struwe & Albert 2002).
REFERENCE: Ho & Liu (1999); Wood & Weaver (1982); Struwe & Albert (2002). [also see MENYANTHACEAE]
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Gentiana L. (Gentian)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 350-400 species, herbs, primarily temperate and arctic. Even following the removal of Gentianopsis and Gentianella (to separate genera and a different subtribe), Gentiana is a large and apparently heterogeneous group, perhaps not monophyletic. No satisfactory comprehensive treatment is available, however. All of the species treated here as Gentiana are in the distinctive group often treated as section, subgenus, or genus Pneumonanthe.
REFERENCE: Pringle (1967)=Z; Halda (1996)=Y; Ho & Liu (2001)=X; Pringle & Weakley (2009)=Q; Ho & Liu (1990); Yuan, Küpfer, & Doyle (1996); Pringle (1977). Key adapted from Z.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Gentiana autumnalis in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Gentiana autumnalis in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Gentiana autumnalis in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Gentiana autumnalis in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Gentiana autumnalis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Gentiana autumnalis

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 19340
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 19340

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19 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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