Plant Index


 
 
 

Fagus grandifolia

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.

american beech, gray beech, red beech

Synonym(s): Fagus americana, Fagus ferruginea, Fagus grandifolia ssp. heterophylla, Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana
Fagus grandifolia (American Beech)
Image ID: 8350
Image by: Parkins, Grant Morrow
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: FAGR
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Fagus grandifolia
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-11-30

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: FAGUS
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Fagus
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Beech
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 10 species, trees, of temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Our native trees belong to subgenus Fagus, section Grandifolia (Shen 1992).
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Cooper & Mercer (1977)=Z; Nixon in FNA (1997); Shen (1992)=X; Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a)=Y; Stanford (1998); Govaerts & Frodin (1998)=V.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: FAGACE
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Fagaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Dumortier 1829
FAMILY COMMON: Beech Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 620-1050 species, trees and shrubs, mostly of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending into se. Asia and Australia.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS: Pith continuous. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) brown or green or olive-green or orange or red or reddish-brown or tan, glabrate or pubescent. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous or pubescent. Leaf scars half-round, bundle scars 3–9 per leaf scar, stipule scars present, stipule scars circumferential or not circumferential. Bark of mature trunks smooth. Buds axillary or pseudoterminal or terminal, brown or reddish-brown, 10–25 mm long, fusiform or lanceoloid, sharp, pubescent, puberulent, bud scales imbricate.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, simple, petiolate, alternate, 6–15 cm long, 2.5–8 cm wide, obovate or oval or ovate, leaf margins serrate or serrulate, leaf apices acuminate or acute, leaf bases cordate or cuneate or obtuse or rounded. Leaf upper surface blue-green or green, glabrous or glabrate. Leaf lower surface green or yellow-green, glabrate or pubescent or with tufts in vein axils, pilose or puberulent or villous. Leaf venation pinnate, secondary veins on either side of the midvein 9–14. Petioles 0.4–1.6 cm long, glabrous or pubescent. Stipules present, 20–40 mm long, caducous, circumferential or not circumferential.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary or terminal, fascicles or heads or spikes, flowers sessile or stalked.
FLOWERS: Flowers unisexual or pistillate or staminate, epigynous. Perianth. Calyx radially symmetric, aposepalous or synsepalous. Sepals 4–8 per flower. Corolla absent. Androecium. Stamens 6–16 per flower, separate. Gynoecium. Ovaries inferior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 3 carpels per flower, styles 3 per pistil, placentation axile. Other floral features. Hypanthia present, involucres present.
FRUITS: Fruits nuts, 1.2–2.2 cm long, brown or reddish-brown, fruit maturation 1 years.
COMMENTS: Leaves with straight, unbranched, lateral veins, each ending in a tooth at the leaf margin; old yellowish brown to tan leaves often persist on branches through the winter; fruits are enclosed by prickly bracts that split open at the end of the summer revealing the 2 or 3, small, 3-angled nuts.
HEIGHT: 50-80 feet

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: February - May
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Fagus grandifolia is commonly found growing in moist mature forests and is easily identified by its thin, smooth gray bark. This long-lived tree is host to over 100 species of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and provide high protein seeds (triangular nuts enclosed in spiny bracts) critical to the diets of many mammals and birds. This species forms an oval to rounded canopy overtime and performs well in full shade.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet, Well-drained
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
375 2011-0248 2011-11-29 379 View
3103 1989-0061 View
3751 1991-0446 View
4472 1992-0628 View
4887 1995-0005 View
5116 1995-0235 View
5645 1995-0769 View
6099 1995-1230 View
8803 2007-0073 2007-03-13 View
8843 2007-0153 2007-06-19 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
379 HORT Liloia View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
906 375 109 Liloia 2011-11-14 View
5157 3103 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
5158 3103 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6058 3751 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6800 4472 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7305 4887 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7538 5116 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8159 5645 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8749 6099 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
8750 6099 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
8751 6099 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
8752 6099 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
8753 6099 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12057 8803 70 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12085 8843 11 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: FAGR
USDA Common Name: American Beech
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (NB, NS, ON, PE, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia
COMMON NAME: Gray Beech, Red Beech, American Beech
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, G, Y; < F. grandifolia - FNA, K1, K2, Mo, Pa, RAB, S, Va, W, WV, Z; < F. grandifolia ssp. grandifolia - V; = F. grandifolia ssp. grandifolia - X]
PHENOLOGY: Apr-May; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Moderate to high elevation forests, especially on high elevation ridges, gaps, and open slopes, often forming clonal dwarfed thickets in the most exposed situations.
COMMENTS: NS, NB, and s. QC west to s. ON and n. MI, south to VA, w. NC, n. GA, e. TN, and n. OH. Red beech is alleged to differ from gray beech in having the involucral segments not covering the nutlets at maturity. Hardin & Johnson (1985), Hardin (1985), and Shen (1992) point out that var. mexicana (Martnez) Little, of the mountains of Mxico, is more closely related to our montane variety or phase than to the lower elevation variety or phase.
RANGE MAP: Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Fagaceae Dumortier 1829 (Beech Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 620-1050 species, trees and shrubs, mostly of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending into se. Asia and Australia.
REFERENCE: Nixon in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Fagus L. (Beech)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 10 species, trees, of temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Our native trees belong to subgenus Fagus, section Grandifolia (Shen 1992).
REFERENCE: Cooper & Mercer (1977)=Z; Nixon in FNA (1997); Shen (1992)=X; Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993); Elias (1971a)=Y; Stanford (1998); Govaerts & Frodin (1998)=V.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Fagus grandifolia in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Fagus grandifolia in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Fagus grandifolia in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Fagus grandifolia in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Fagus grandifolia in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Fagus grandifolia

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 8350
ID IMAGE2: 8349
ID IMAGE3: 4401

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24 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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