virginia snakeroot, serpent birthwort, turpentine-root
Image ID: 20910
Image by: Cressler, Alan M.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Endodeca serpentaria
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-08-28
GENUS CODE: GENUS SCIENTIFIC: GENUS AUTHORITY: GENUS COMMON: GENUS SUMMARY: GENUS IDENTIFICATION: GENUS REFERENCES:
FAMILY CODE: ARISTO FAMILY SCIENTIFIC:Aristolochiaceae FAMILY AUTHORITY: A. L. de Jussieu 1789 FAMILY COMMON: Birthwort Family FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions. FAMILY REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
INTRO: Rhizomatous perennial of dry to mesic forests; may be more restricted to mesic situations over acidic substrate but ranges into drier situations over calcareous/mafic substrates. STEMS: Stems smooth to hairy, sometimes trailing. LEAVES: Leaves alternate,petiolate, narrowly lance-shaped to somewhat oval and the baselobed, suggestive of an arrowhead shape, 2–6 in. long. INFLORESCENCE: FLOWERS: Flowers solitary on a weak-stemmed lower branch; greenish-purplish to maroon; ½-¾ in. long; bilaterally symmetric and tubular, with a sharp curve and a constriction below the flaring mouth; hairy. FRUITS: COMMENTS: Variations in leaf shape and texture have led to naming of other species, though these may represent morphologic extremes of a polymorphic complex; roots have a strong turpentine odor when bruised. HEIGHT: 4-24 in. DURATION: HABIT: LEAF ARRANGEMENT:
Alternate LEAF COMPLEXITY:
Simple LEAF RETENTION: FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
BLOOM TIME: May-Jun
BLOOM COLOR: Greenish-purple
FRUITING PERIOD: Jun-Jul. DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:
Bloom Table Text:
Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Endodeca serpentaria
COMMON NAME: Turpentine-root, Virginia Snakeroot, Serpent Birthwort
SYNONYMY: [= Tn, Va; = Aristolochia serpentaria Linnaeus - C, Fl, FNA, G, K, Pa, RAB, W, WH3; > A. serpentaria var. hastata (Nuttall) Duchartre - F; > A. serpentaria var. serpentaria - F; > E. hastata (Nuttall) Rafinesque - Il; > E. serpentaria - Il; > A. hastata Nuttall - S; > A. convolvulacea Small - S; > A. serpentaria - S; > Endodeca serpentaria var. hastata (Rafinesque) C.F. Reed]
PHENOLOGY: May-Jun; Jun-Jul.
HABITAT: Dry to mesic forests, perhaps more restricted to mesic situations over acidic substrate, ranging into drier situations over calcareous or mafic substrates.
COMMENTS: CT and NY west to IL, MI, and MO, south to c. peninsular FL and TX. The tremendous variation in this species needs further study. Plants with sparingly pubescent, thin-textured, linear to lanceolate leaves have been called Aristolochia hastata. Plants with broadly ovate, densely pubescent leaves have been called Aristolochia convolvulacea. These may represent merely morphologic extremes of a polymorphic complex; alternatively, some taxonomic recognition of such plants as distinct from A. serpentaria may be warranted.
RANGE MAP: Endodeca serpentaria.png
Key to Map SymbolsABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora) Aristolochiaceae A. L. de Jussieu 1789 (Birthwort Family) SUMMARY: A family of about 6-12 genera and 600 species, vines, shrubs, and herbs, of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions. REFERENCE: Barringer & Whittemore in FNA (1997); Ohi-Toma et al. (2006); Neinhuis et al. (2005); Huber in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
() SUMMARY: REFERENCE:
SERNEC: Find Endodeca serpentaria in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available) UNC SERNEC: Find Endodeca serpentaria in
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)