Plant Index


 
 
 

Cyrilla racemiflora

Cyrilla racemiflora L.

titi, swamp titi

Synonym(s): Cyrilla antillana
Cyrilla racemiflora (Titi)
Image ID: 13949
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: CYRA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cyrilla racemiflora
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-02-11

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: CYRIL
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Cyrilla
GENUS AUTHORITY: Garden ex L.
GENUS COMMON: Titi
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of 3-10 (or more) species, trees and shrubs, of warm temperate to tropical North America, the West Indies, and n. South America. The most recent monographer (Thomas 1960) treated Cyrilla as monotypic, clearly the diversity of habit (from subshrubs to large forest trees) and floral structure warrant the recognition of multiple taxa at specific rank; the genus is badly in need of modern study.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Lemke in FNA (2009); Kurz & Godfrey (1962)=Z; Thomas (1960)=Y; Small (1924b)=X; Kubitzki in Kubitzki (2004).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: CYRILL
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Cyrillaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: Endlicher 1841
FAMILY COMMON: Ti-ti Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of 2 genera and 3 or more species, ranging from se. North America to the West Indies and n. South America (following the removal of Purdiaea to the Clethraceae (Anderberg & Zhang 2002).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Lemke in FNA (2009); Godfrey (1988); Anderberg & Zhang (2002); Thomas (1960)=Y; Kubitzki in Kubitzki (2004). Key adapted from Godfrey (1988).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS:
LEAVES:
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS:
FRUITS:
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 6-12 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub, Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous, Evergreen

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: May-July
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: White flowers
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bogs/pocosins
NATIVE RANGE: southeastern U.S. to n. South America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Titi is a lesser-known southeastern native shrub that is gaining recognition for its wonderful attributes. Small bell-shaped white flowers on drooping spikes have a delightful honey-like fragrance. This shrub typically has an interesting architectural shape, with branches spiraling in a sculptural silhouette. Its foliage is glossy dark green, often tinged with red in the fall. Depending upon the harshness of the winter, some foliage of the titi often persists until spring.

Bloom Table Text: This large, distinctive shrub grows to about twenty feet in swampy areas of the Coastal Plain. Considered a semi-evergreen, it does drop its leaves in the northern end of its range or during a hard winter; while farther south the leaves create a fantastic display of oranges and scarlets. Another attractive aspect of Ti-ti is its habit of wide-spreading branches which have smooth brown bark and a twisted shape. Slender white flower racemes appear in late June and July and are three to six inches long, giving it a graceful and delicate appearance.

NCBG Location: Coastal Plain Habitat, Totten Center Landscape

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 5
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
849 1985-0520 View
1916 1986-1702 View
7774 2001-0130 2001-06-27 View
8006 2004-0014 2004-02-19 View
8926 1987-0129 0000-00-00 989 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
609 SOS 2015-11-03 Driskill View
989 HORT 1979-01-01 View
1819 HORT 2006-10-01 Bryan View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1603 849 166 NCBG staff 1978-11-09 View
1604 849 27 Liloia 2003-07-17 View
1605 849 158 NCBG staff 1978-11-09 View
3033 1916 62 NCBG staff 1978-01-01 View
3034 1916 6 NCBG staff 1986-12-22 View
3035 1916 59 NCBG staff 2001-03-15 View
4481 8926 9 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10978 7774 6 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
11252 8006 132 NCBG staff 2003-01-01 View
11253 8006 166 NCBG staff 2003-11-01 View
11254 8006 118 Liloia 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: CYRA
USDA Common Name: Swamp Titi
Native Status: L48 (N), PR (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, DE, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC, TX, VA), USA+ (PR)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FACW FACW FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cyrilla racemiflora
COMMON NAME: Titi
SYNONYMY: [= C, G, K1, RAB, S, Va, X, Z; < C. racemiflora - FNA, GW, K2, WH3, Y; > C. racemiflora var. racemiflora - F; > C. racemiflora var. subglobosa Fernald - F]
PHENOLOGY: May-Jul; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Pocosins, swamps, lake and flatwood pond margins, streambanks, pine flatwoods.
COMMENTS: E. VA (Accomack County) south to sc. peninsular FL, west to e. TX. Thomas (1960) interprets this species very broadly, as also distributed in the West Indies, Belize, Mexico, and n. South America (notably the tepuis and Gran Sabana of s. Venezuela), but I interpret plants in these areas as belonging to other species. The leaves are quite variable in shape and size; the venation and glossy smoothness, however, are distinctive once learned.
RANGE MAP: Cyrilla racemiflora.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Cyrillaceae Endlicher 1841 (Ti-ti Family)
SUMMARY: A family of 2 genera and 3 or more species, ranging from se. North America to the West Indies and n. South America (following the removal of Purdiaea to the Clethraceae (Anderberg & Zhang 2002).
REFERENCE: Lemke in FNA (2009); Godfrey (1988); Anderberg & Zhang (2002); Thomas (1960)=Y; Kubitzki in Kubitzki (2004). Key adapted from Godfrey (1988).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Cyrilla Garden ex L. (Titi)
SUMMARY: A genus of 3-10 (or more) species, trees and shrubs, of warm temperate to tropical North America, the West Indies, and n. South America. The most recent monographer (Thomas 1960) treated Cyrilla as monotypic, clearly the diversity of habit (from subshrubs to large forest trees) and floral structure warrant the recognition of multiple taxa at specific rank; the genus is badly in need of modern study.
REFERENCE: Lemke in FNA (2009); Kurz & Godfrey (1962)=Z; Thomas (1960)=Y; Small (1924b)=X; Kubitzki in Kubitzki (2004).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Cyrilla racemiflora in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Cyrilla racemiflora in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Cyrilla racemiflora in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Cyrilla racemiflora in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Cyrilla racemiflora in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Cyrilla racemiflora

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 13949
ID IMAGE2: 7927
ID IMAGE3: 13953

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 7927

Image ID: 7928

Image ID: 13950

Image ID: 13952

Image ID: 34460

Image ID: 36766

Image ID: 13951

Image ID: 13953

Image ID: 13954

Image ID: 13955

Image ID: 34459

Image ID: 34461

Image ID: 11031
14 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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