Plant Index


 
 
 

Celtis laevigata

Celtis laevigata Willd.

southern hackberry, sugarberry

Celtis laevigata (Southern Hackberry)
Image ID: 13517
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: CELA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Celtis laevigata
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-11-30

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: CELTI
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Celtis
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Hackberry
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 100 species, trees, shrubs, and woody vines, widespread in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions worldwide.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Henrickson (2010)=Y; Whittemore in Yatskievych (2013)=Mo; Todzia in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key based in part on Mo.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ULMACE
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Ulmaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: De Mirbel 1815
FAMILY COMMON: Elm Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: As here circumscribed (excluding Celtis and relatives), a family of 6-7 genera and about 35 species, of temperate, subtropical, and boreal Northern Hemisphere, rarely extending into the Southern Hemisphere). Zavada & Kim (1996) discuss compelling reasons to remove Celtis from the Ulmaceae.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Sherman-Broyles, Barker, & Schulz in FNA (1997); Zavada & Kim (1996); Todzia in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see CANNABACEAE]

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: A medium to large-sized deciduous tree, usually 20–30 m (65–100 ft.) tall when mature. Older twigs have chambered pith, which sometimes becomes hollow. Bark is usually light gray and smooth, but often bears a few scattered to many warty outgrowths. Leaves are alternate, typically small to medium sized (6–8 cm long), usually twice as long wide, with a long-pointed tip. Leaves are usually lanceolate, ovate or oval shaped, and often curve to one side. Leaf margins are mostly untoothed, but a few (rarely many) small teeth may be present. Leaves bear 3 prominent veins that branch from the base of the leaf blade. Flowers occur in small clusters, with functionally unisexual female and male flowers on the same tree, occasionally with male and females flowers combined. Fruits are small (0.4–0.9 cm long) drupes that are usually orangish-red in color, sometimes purple. Southern Hackberry occurs most commonly in bottomland forests of the Piedmont, where it often grows along the edges of rivers and streams.
STEMS: Pith chambered or continuous or hollow. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) brown or green or reddish-brown, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous. Leaf scars crescent-shaped or oval, bundle scars 3 per leaf scar, stipule scars inconspicuous. Bark of mature trunks ridged or smooth or warty. Buds axillary, brown or reddish-brown, 1.5–3.2 mm long, ovoid, sharp, pubescent, puberulent, bud scales imbricate.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, simple, petiolate, alternate, distichous, (4–)6–8(–15) cm long, (1.1–)3–4(–6) cm wide, falcate or lanceolate or oval or ovate, leaf margins entire or dentate or serrate or ciliate, leaf apices acuminate or acute or caudate, leaf bases cuneate or oblique or obtuse or rounded. Leaf upper surface green or yellow-green, glabrous or glabrate. Leaf lower surface green or yellow-green, glabrous or glabrate. Leaf venation palmate. Petioles 0.6–1.3 cm long, glabrous. Stipules present, caducous.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary, fascicles or flowers solitary, flowers sessile or stalked.
FLOWERS: Flowers unisexual or pistillate or staminate, hypogynous. Perianth. Calyx radially symmetric, aposepalous. Sepals 4–6 per flower, green, lanceolate or ovate, glabrous or pubescent, puberulent, persistent. Corolla absent. Androecium. Stamens 4–6 per flower, separate. Gynoecium. Ovaries superior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 2 carpels per flower, styles 2 per pistil, placentation apical.
FRUITS: Fruits drupes, 0.4–0.9 cm long, brown or orange or purple or red or yellow, fruit maturation 1 years.
COMMENTS:
HEIGHT: 65–100 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub, Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: March or April or May.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD: Aug-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Disturbed, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: southeastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
806 1985-0466 View
3829 1991-0524 View
4488 1992-0644 View
4916 1995-0034 View
5083 1995-0202 View
5866 1995-0994 View
6011 1995-1142 View



GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1536 806 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1537 806 1 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1538 806 153 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1539 806 176 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1540 806 177 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6138 3829 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6816 4488 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7335 4916 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7502 5083 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8381 5866 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8642 6011 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: CELA
USDA Common Name: Sugarberry
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, DC, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NM, NV, OH, OK, OR, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACW FAC FACW FAC FACW FACW

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Celtis laevigata
COMMON NAME: Southern Hackberry, Sugarberry
SYNONYMY: [< C. laevigata - C, FNA, G, GW, K2, RAB, Va, W, WH3; = C. laevigata var. laevigata - F, Mo; = C. mississippiensis Bosc - S]
PHENOLOGY: Apr-May; Aug-Oct.
HABITAT: Bottomland forests, especially on natural levees, upland calcareous forests and woodlands, shell middens.
COMMENTS: MD, WV, IN, IL, MO and KS south to s. FL and TX.
RANGE MAP: Celtis laevigata.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ulmaceae De Mirbel 1815 (Elm Family)
SUMMARY: As here circumscribed (excluding Celtis and relatives), a family of 6-7 genera and about 35 species, of temperate, subtropical, and boreal Northern Hemisphere, rarely extending into the Southern Hemisphere). Zavada & Kim (1996) discuss compelling reasons to remove Celtis from the Ulmaceae.
REFERENCE: Sherman-Broyles, Barker, & Schulz in FNA (1997); Zavada & Kim (1996); Todzia in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see CANNABACEAE]
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Celtis L. (Hackberry)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 100 species, trees, shrubs, and woody vines, widespread in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions worldwide.
REFERENCE: Henrickson (2010)=Y; Whittemore in Yatskievych (2013)=Mo; Todzia in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key based in part on Mo.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Celtis laevigata in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Celtis laevigata in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Celtis laevigata in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Celtis laevigata in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Celtis laevigata in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Celtis laevigata

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 13517
ID IMAGE2: 13516
ID IMAGE3: 0

From the Image Gallery


Image ID: 13516

Image ID: 36310

Image ID: 36312

Image ID: 13518

Image ID: 13519

Image ID: 36311

Image ID: 10764
8 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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