Plant Index


 
 
 
 

Carya cordiformis

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch

bitternut hickory, pignut

Synonym(s): Carya cordiformis var. latifolia, Hicoria cordiformis
Carya cordiformis (Bitternut Hickory)
Image ID: 13457
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: CACO15
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Carya cordiformis
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-11-30

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: CARYA
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Carya
GENUS AUTHORITY: Nutt.
GENUS COMMON: Hybrid hickory
GENUS SUMMARY: [contributed by Alan S. Weakley & Robert K. Peet]
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: Surface vestiture of leaves and bud scales is useful in distinguishing species of Carya. Some use of these characters can be made with a 10Χ or 20Χ hand lens; better still is a dissecting microscope. It is important to understand the different trichome types mentioned in the key (terminology follows Hardin 1990 and Hardin & Stone 1984). Short acicular trichomes are simple, unicellular trichomes tapered to a pointed tip, 0.10-0.35 mm long and with rough walls. Long acicular trichomes (solitary of Hardin & Stone 1984) are similar to short acicular, but are much larger, 0.45-1.6 mm long, and have smooth walls. Fasciculate trichomes are multicellular and have 2-8 straight or curled rays radiating from a clustered base. Multiradiate trichomes are similar to fasciculate, but have 8-17 rays, the inner (and usually more upright) rays attached basally above the outer (and usually more spreading) rays. Capitate glandular trichomes are unicellular or multicellular, and are distinguished by their bulbous or expanded tip; they are usually 0.02-0.1 mm long. Peltate scales are flat or dome-shaped shields or disks, slightly to strongly glandular, (sometimes regularly or irregularly lobed) and can be either sessile or stalked (they are often referred to as scales, resin dots, peltate glands, or lepidote scales). On the lower surfaces of leaflets, peltate scales are of two types: large peltate scales are 0.08-0.3 mm in diameter and are round, with smooth or slightly irregular margins, while small peltate scales are 0.025-0.12 mm in diameter and are either round, irregularly lobed or regularly 2- or 4-lobed.
GENUS REFERENCES: Stone in FNA (1997); Hardin (1992); Hardin & Stone (1984); Elias (1972); Stone, Adrouny, & Flake (1969); Stone (1961); Mohlenbrock (1986); Sargent (1918); Manning (1950); Hardin (1952); Little (1969); Harrar & Harrar (1962); Stone in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key based in part on an unpublished manuscript prepared by Stone & Hardin for the Flora of the Southeastern United States.

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: JUGLAN
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Juglandaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A. Richard ex Kunth 1824
FAMILY COMMON: Walnut Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 60 species, trees and shrubs, mostly temperate.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Stone in FNA (1997); Manos & Stone (2001); Elias (1972); Stone in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: A medium to large-sized, deciduous tree, typically ranging from 15–35 m (50–115 ft.) tall when fully grown. Terminal buds are relatively large (10–19 mm long), and sulfur yellow to tan, with valvate bud scales. Twigs are relatively slender. Bark of mature trunks is gray or brownish, initially with a smooth texture, becoming furrowed and ridged with age, sometimes with small exfoliating scales, but not shaggy. Leaves are alternate, moderately large (15–40 cm long), and pinnately compound, with 7–9 (occasionally 5, 11, or 13) leaflets. Leaflets are ovate to lanceolate or obovate to oblancoleate in shape, sometimes falcate, with coarsely to finely serrate margins. The lower leaf surface bears hairs along the larger veins, the remaining portions with few to many hairs. Leaves produce a pungent odor when bruised or crushed. Petioles lack hairs at the base, but become hairy closer to the rachis, which is also hairy. Separate male and female inflorescences occur on the same tree, the male flowers in drooping catkins, the female flowers in short, terminal spikes. Fruits are relatively small (2–3.6 cm long) nuts enclosed in a thin (2–3 mm) husk. The husk is 4-winged above the middle, has a short point at the end, and typically splits into four sections about half it’s length.
STEMS: Pith continuous. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) brown or green or reddish-brown or tan, glabrous or glabrate. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous, scaly or without special surface features. Leaf scars heart-shaped or three-lobed, bundle scars numerous, stipule scars absent. Bark of mature trunks exfoliating or flaky or furrowed or plated or ridged or smooth. Buds axillary or superposed or terminal, orange or tan or yellow, 3–19 mm long, ovoid, blunt or sharp, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, pilose, bud scales valvate.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, compound, once pinnately compound, petiolate, alternate, 15–40 cm long. Leaf upper surface green or yellow-green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, villous. Leaf lower surface green, glabrate or pubescent or with tufts in vein axils, villous. Leaflets petiolulate or nearly sessile or sessile, (5–)7–9(–13) per leaf, 2.5–20 cm long, 1–8.5 cm wide, falcate or lanceolate or oblanceloate or obovate or ovate, leaflet margins serrate or serrulate, leaflet apices acuminate, leaflet bases attenuate or cuneate or oblique or rounded, leaflet venation pinnate, terminal leaflet present (odd-pinnate). Petioles 3–7 cm long, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, hirsute. Rachises pubescent. Stipules absent.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary or terminal, catkins or flowers solitary or spikes, flowers sessile.
FLOWERS: Flowers unisexual or pistillate or staminate, epigynous. Perianth. Calyx radially symmetric, synsepalous. Sepals 2–4 per flower, persistent. Corolla absent. Androecium. Stamens 4 per flower, separate. Gynoecium. Ovaries inferior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 2 carpels per flower, placentation apical or basal. Other floral features. Hypanthia present.
FRUITS: Fruits nuts, 2–3.6 cm long, brown, fruit maturation 1 years.
COMMENTS: Leaves release a pungent odor when bruised or crushed; fruits with a husk that splits into 4 sections (partially or to the base) when mature, revealing the nut; twigs relatively slender.
HEIGHT: 50–115 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Pinnate
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: Apr-May
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x

BLOOM COLOR:
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text:

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE:
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE:
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
800 1985-0459 View
3771 1991-0466 View
4461 1992-0617 View
6004 1995-1135 View

GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1525 800 176 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6079 3771 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6789 4461 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
8613 6004 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: CACO15
USDA Common Name: Bitternut Hickory
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FAC FACU FACU FACU FAC

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Carya cordiformis
COMMON NAME: Bitternut Hickory
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, GW, K1, K3, Mo, Pa, RAB, Va, W, WH3; = Hicoria cordiformis (Wangenheim) Britton - S]
PHENOLOGY: Apr-May; Oct.
HABITAT: Forests and woodlands, especially in rich, moist alluvial or slope forests.
COMMENTS: ME and s. QC west to MN and NE, south to Panhandle FL and e. TX.
RANGE MAP: Carya cordiformis.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth 1824 (Walnut Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 8 genera and 60 species, trees and shrubs, mostly temperate.
REFERENCE: Stone in FNA (1997); Manos & Stone (2001); Elias (1972); Stone in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Carya Nutt. (Hybrid hickory)
SUMMARY: [contributed by Alan S. Weakley & Robert K. Peet]
REFERENCE: Stone in FNA (1997); Hardin (1992); Hardin & Stone (1984); Elias (1972); Stone, Adrouny, & Flake (1969); Stone (1961); Mohlenbrock (1986); Sargent (1918); Manning (1950); Hardin (1952); Little (1969); Harrar & Harrar (1962); Stone in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Key based in part on an unpublished manuscript prepared by Stone & Hardin for the Flora of the Southeastern United States.

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Carya cordiformis in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Carya cordiformis in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Carya cordiformis in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Carya cordiformis in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Carya cordiformis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Carya cordiformis

IMAGE USE RECORDS

ID IMAGE: 13457 - Primary Image FloraQuest Plant Detail Page (Landscape Preferred)
ID IMAGE1: 13457 - Primary Image WOTAS
ID IMAGE2: 13457 - Secondary Image WOTAS
ID IMAGE3: 0 - Primary Image Plant Sale Sign (Landscape Only)
ID IMAGE4: 0 - Primary Image New Plant Sale Label (Portrait Only)

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