Plant Index


 
 
 

Carpinus caroliniana

Carpinus caroliniana Walter

ironwood, american hornbeam, blue beech, musclewood, coastal american hornbeam

Carpinus caroliniana (Ironwood)
Image ID: 13448
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: CACA18
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Carpinus caroliniana
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-11-30

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: CARPI
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Carpinus
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Hornbeam
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 26 species, trees, in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, extending southward to se. Asia and Central America. The smooth gray bark gives Carpinus the names Water-beech and Blue-beech, the fluted, sinewy appearance of the trunk the name Muscle-tree, and the very hard, heavy wood the name Ironwood.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Furlow (1990)=Z; Hardin (1971)=Y; Furlow (1987a); Furlow (1987b)=X; Furlow in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: BETULA
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Betulaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: S.F. Gray 1821
FAMILY COMMON: Birch Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of 6 genera and about 150 species, primarily of subarctic to cold temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending through Central America to n. South America. The two subfamilies recognized here are sometimes elevated to family status, as by Govaerts & Frodin (1998).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Furlow in FNA (1997); Furlow (1990)=Z; Hardin (1971)=Y; Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: A small, deciduous tree, usually ranging from 4–15 m (13–50 ft.) tall when fully grown. Bark of mature trunks is gray and smooth, sometimes roughened, often with a fluted or sinewy appearance. Leaves are alternate, elliptic to ovate or oblong-ovate in shape, usually with doubly serrate margins. Flowers are in catkins, with separate male and female catkins on the same tree. Fruits are small (4–9 mm long), brown or tan nuts, each pair of nuts subtended by a conspicuous, three-lobed, leafy bract. American hornbeam is typically an understory tree, most often found in bottomland forests, swamps, or along rivers and streams throughout much of the eastern United States. The sinewy appearance of the trunk accounts for one of its common names, musclewood.
STEMS: Pith continuous. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) green, glabrous or pubescent. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous or pubescent. Leaf scars crescent-shaped or half-round or oval, bundle scars 3 per leaf scar, stipule scars present, stipule scars not circumferential, short shoots present, short shoots bearing leaves. Bark of mature trunks furrowed or ridged or smooth. Buds axillary, brown or reddish-brown, (2–)3–4(–6) mm long, conic or ovoid, sharp, pubescent, bud scales imbricate.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, simple, petiolate, alternate or spiral, (1–)3–12 cm long, (0.8–)1–6 cm wide, elliptic or oblong or ovate, leaf margins serrate or serrulate or doubly serrate, leaf apices acuminate or acute or obtuse, leaf bases cordate or cuneate or oblique or obtuse or rounded. Leaf upper surface blue-green or green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent. Leaf lower surface green or yellow-green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent or with tufts in vein axils, puberulent. Leaf venation pinnate. Petioles (0.1–)0.6–0.9(–1.5) cm long, pubescent. Stipules present, caducous, blade-like, not circumferential.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary or terminal, catkins, flowers sessile.
FLOWERS: Flowers unisexual or pistillate or staminate, epigynous. Perianth. Calyx radially symmetric, aposepalous. Sepals 1–6 per flower, ascending, sepal apices acute, persistent. Corolla absent. Androecium. Stamens 3(–6) per flower. Gynoecium. Ovaries inferior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 2 carpels per flower, styles 2 per pistil, placentation apical. Other floral features. Hypanthia present.
FRUITS: Fruits nuts, 0.4–0.9 cm long, brown or green or tan, fruit maturation 1 years.
COMMENTS: Fruit is subtended by a conspicuous, three-lobed, leafy bract.
HEIGHT: 13-50 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub, Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: February or March or April.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Clusters of small tan flowers
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sept.-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Ironwood, (also known as American hornbeam or musclewood) has a beautiful smooth, rippling trunk and produces very hard wood. It is typically found in SE forest understories and flood plains. It is an excellent small tree to establish definition and scale under larger trees. Small papery tan clusters of fruit add visual interest and are food for birds. This native tree has a slow to medium growth rate and lives for up to 150 years. The Carpinus genus supports up to 66 lepidoptera species.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
1070 1985-0797 View
1251 1986-1023 View
1906 1986-1691 View
3704 1991-0399 View
3865 1992-0008 View
4469 1992-0625 View
5018 1995-0137 View
5074 1995-0193 View
5527 1995-0650 View
6002 1995-1133 View
8256 2004-0285 2006-07-24 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
573 SOS 2015-10-19 Heraty View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
1954 1070 133 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1955 1070 176 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
1956 1070 170 NCBG staff 2003-02-01 View
2162 1251 81 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
3016 1906 6 NCBG staff 1986-12-22 View
6008 3704 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6175 3865 70 NCBG staff 1990-06-01 View
6797 4469 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7437 5018 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
7493 5074 203 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8041 5527 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8606 6002 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8607 6002 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8608 6002 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8609 6002 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8610 6002 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8611 6002 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: CACA18
USDA Common Name: American Hornbeam
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FAC FAC FAC FAC FAC

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Carpinus caroliniana var. caroliniana
COMMON NAME: Coastal American Hornbeam
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, Il; = C. caroliniana ssp. caroliniana - FNA, K1, K2, X, Z; < C. caroliniana - G, GW, RAB, S, Va, WH3, Y]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-Apr; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Streambanks, riverbanks, bottomland forests, lower slopes, maritime forests.
COMMENTS: S. NJ, e. MD, and e. VA south to c. peninsular FL, west to e. TX, and north in the inland to s. MO and s. IL. The validity of two taxa was established by Furlow (1987a, 1987b) largely through statistical methods. The two taxa have some morphologic and phytogeographic coherence, but intergradation appears to be extensive, and individual specimens (in the herbarium) or trees (in the field) may not be readily identifiable to variety.
RANGE MAP: Carpinus caroliniana var. caroliniana.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Betulaceae S.F. Gray 1821 (Birch Family)
SUMMARY: A family of 6 genera and about 150 species, primarily of subarctic to cold temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but extending through Central America to n. South America. The two subfamilies recognized here are sometimes elevated to family status, as by Govaerts & Frodin (1998).
REFERENCE: Furlow in FNA (1997); Furlow (1990)=Z; Hardin (1971)=Y; Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Carpinus L. (Hornbeam)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 26 species, trees, in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, extending southward to se. Asia and Central America. The smooth gray bark gives Carpinus the names Water-beech and Blue-beech, the fluted, sinewy appearance of the trunk the name Muscle-tree, and the very hard, heavy wood the name Ironwood.
REFERENCE: Furlow (1990)=Z; Hardin (1971)=Y; Furlow (1987a); Furlow (1987b)=X; Furlow in FNA (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Kubitzki in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Carpinus caroliniana in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Carpinus caroliniana in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Carpinus caroliniana in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Carpinus caroliniana in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Carpinus caroliniana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Carpinus caroliniana

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 13448
ID IMAGE2: 7213
ID IMAGE3: 13449

From the Image Gallery


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Image ID: 10743
16 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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