eastern columbine, red columbine, canada columbine
Synonym(s): Aquilegia australis, Aquilegia canadensis var. australis, Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea, Aquilegia canadensis var. eminens, Aquilegia canadensis var. hybrida, Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula, Aquilegia coccinea, Aquilegia latiuscula, Aquilegia phoenicantha
Image ID: 23404
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Aquilegia canadensis
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-02-14
GENUS CODE: AQUIL GENUS SCIENTIFIC:Aquilegia GENUS AUTHORITY: L. GENUS COMMON: Columbine GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 80 species, perennial herbs, of the Northern Hemisphere. GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: When in leaf, somewhat easily mistaken for Thalictrum or Enemion; look for old fruits. GENUS REFERENCES: Whittemore in FNA (1997); Munz (1946)=Z; Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
FAMILY CODE: RANUNC FAMILY SCIENTIFIC:Ranunculaceae FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789 FAMILY COMMON: Buttercup Family FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 62 genera and 2450 species, herbs, shrubs, and vines, primarily of temperate and boreal regions. Classsification of subfamilies and tribes follows Wang et al. (2009). Subfamilies and tribes follow Wang et al. (2009). FAMILY REFERENCE: Whittemore & Parfitt in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Keener (1977); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see HYDRASTIDACEAE]
INTRO:Erectperennial found in a variety of moist to dry habitats, including forests, woodlands and rock outcrops (often on calcareous or mafic soils). STEMS: Stems slender, branched, smooth or hairy. LEAVES: Leaves basal and alternate on stem,petiolate,divided into 3 leaflets to 1 1/2 in. long and wide, with each leafletdivided again into 3 lobed or toothed leaflets; white-waxy coating on underside. INFLORESCENCE: FLOWERS: Flowers in an open panicle, nodding on slender stalks; red and yellow, about 1 in. long, turned upside down so that the long spur at the base of each of 5 red petals points upward and the inner yellow parts point down; yellow stamens protrude and dangle. FRUITS:Fruit a narrow, 5-parted follicle with ascending-spreading persistent styles. COMMENTS: Visited by ruby-throated hummingbirds and some long-tongued bumblebees. HEIGHT: 1-3 ft. DURATION:
Alternate LEAF COMPLEXITY: LEAF RETENTION:
Semi-evergreen FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
BLOOM TIME: February-June
BLOOM COLOR: Red and yellow
FRUITING PERIOD: DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Moist forests, Outcrops and glades
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: This southeastern native perennial is easy to grow. The pale red and yellow flowers are borne above the foliage on loosely branched stalks. The pendant flowers are a favorite nectar source of hummingbirds. Eastern columbine is a showy addition to the garden whether planted in small groups or masses. It is an excellent choice for naturalizing as it often seeds in. And it supports up to 12 species of lepidoptera. Eastern columbine also makes an excellent cut flower. 1987 N.C. Wildflower of the Year.
Bloom Table Text: Eastern columbine is a perennial wildflower native to North Carolina. Aquilegia blooms in mid-spring and has a tendency to self-sow its seeds during the reproductive stage. Its flowers have red and yellow tubular petals with curved, knobbed spurs. The red color of the flower attracts insects and hummingbirds, whose long tongues can reach the nectar at the base of the long spurs. They were said to resemble the talons of an eagle (aquila in Latin) or a circle of doves (columba in Latin) drinking around a fountain. Eastern columbine also makes an excellent cut flower. 1987 N.C. Wildflower of the Year.
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Aquilegia canadensis
COMMON NAME: Canada Columbine, Eastern Columbine
SYNONYMY: [= C, FNA, G, K, Mo, Pa, RAB, S, Va, W, WH3; > A. canadensis var. canadensis - F, Z; > A. canadensis var. coccinea (Small) Munz - F, Z; > A. canadensis - S; > A. australis Small - S; > A. coccinea Small - S; > A. canadensis var. australis (Small) Munz - Z]
HABITAT: Forests, woodlands, rock outcrops, especially (though by no means entirely) on calcareous or mafic substrates.
COMMENTS: NS, QC, ON, MB, and SK south to Panhandle FL, s. AL, w. TN, c. AR, and se. OK; disjunct in Edwards Plateau, TX. One of our most familiar wildflowers. Disjunct populations in the deep South, on limestone in sw. GA and FL Panhandle, have been described as A. australis or A. canadensis var. australis; they need additional study.
RANGE MAP: Aquilegia canadensis.png
Key to Map SymbolsABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora) Ranunculaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Buttercup Family) SUMMARY: A family of about 62 genera and 2450 species, herbs, shrubs, and vines, primarily of temperate and boreal regions. Classsification of subfamilies and tribes follows Wang et al. (2009). Subfamilies and tribes follow Wang et al. (2009). REFERENCE: Whittemore & Parfitt in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Keener (1977); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see HYDRASTIDACEAE]ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora) Aquilegia L. (Columbine) SUMMARY: A genus of about 80 species, perennial herbs, of the Northern Hemisphere. REFERENCE: Whittemore in FNA (1997); Munz (1946)=Z; Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).
SERNEC: Find Aquilegia canadensis in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available) UNC SERNEC: Find Aquilegia canadensis in
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)