Plant Index


 
 
 

Actaea racemosa

Actaea racemosa L.

early black-cohosh, black baneberry, common black-cohosh, bugbane

Actaea racemosa (Early Black-cohosh)
Image ID: 9840
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: ACRA7
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Actaea racemosa
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2018-12-17
SELECTED SYNONYM: Cimicifuga racemosa

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: ACTAE
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Actaea
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Baneberry
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 28 species, perennial herbs, of temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Compton, Culham, & Jury (1998) support the inclusion of Cimicifuga in Actaea, based on morphologic and molecular analyses.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: In rich coves and other mesic Appalachian forests, Actaea often grows with a number of other herbs with similarly compound leaves, including Astilbe (Saxifragaceae), Aruncus (Rosaceae), Caulophyllum (Berberidaceae), Angelica, Thaspium, Osmorrhiza, and Ligusticum (Apiaceae), Aralia (Araliaceae), Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae), and others. The curious evolutionary convergence of leaf morphology (to a 2-3-ternately compound form) of a large number of unrelated genera of Appalachian cove forests is interesting.
GENUS REFERENCES: Ford in FNA (1997); Ramsey in FNA (1997); Compton, Culham, & Jury (1998)=Z; Park & Lee 1996); Ramsey (1987, 1988); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: RANUNC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Ranunculaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Buttercup Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 62 genera and 2450 species, herbs, shrubs, and vines, primarily of temperate and boreal regions. Classsification of subfamilies and tribes follows Wang et al. (2009). Subfamilies and tribes follow Wang et al. (2009).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Whittemore & Parfitt in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Keener (1977); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see HYDRASTIDACEAE]

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect, rhizomatous perennial found in clearings in rich woods, usually on base-rich soils.
STEMS: Stems simple, smooth.
LEAVES: Leaves alternate, petiolate, large and horizontal, 2-3 times ternately divided into 20-70 sharply pointed and coarsely toothed leaflets.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in a tapering, erect spike, to 1 ft. long, on a tall, leafless, sometimes branched stalk held above foliage; white, to 1/2 in. wide, with 5 sepals that drop early, numerous bushy white stamens and a single style; flowers open in succession upward, so raceme remains in bloom for 2 weeks or more.
FRUITS: Fruit an oval, firm-walled follicle.
COMMENTS: Flowers attract pollinators with a sour, musky smell.
HEIGHT: 3-8 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY:
LEAF RETENTION:

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY:
BLOOM TIME: May-Aug
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: White
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Moist forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Perfect for the back of a shade border or woodland garden, this native perennial develops overtime into a mound of dense, compound foliage accented by tall wand-like white blossoms in mid-to-late summer. The flowers attract pollinators with a sour, musky smell. Actaea racemosa blooms earlier than its cousins in the genus Actaea and prefers rich, humusy, moisture-retentive soil. Its leaves will scorch if the soil is allowed to dry out too much. This is an excellent pollen and nectar source for pollinators.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average, Moist/Wet
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 8
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
171 2008-0347 2019-07-02 172 View
190 2011-0001 2011-01-04 189 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
172 HORT 2001-09-06 Bryan View
189 HORT 2008-05-05 Keith View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
343 171 77 Liloia 2008-04-25 View
369 190 24 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View
370 190 25 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View
371 190 31 NCBG staff 2011-03-29 View
372 190 31 NCBG staff 2011-05-13 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: ACRA7
USDA Common Name: Black Baneberry
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV), CAN (ON, QC)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Actaea racemosa
COMMON NAME: Common Black-cohosh, Early Black-cohosh, Bugbane
SYNONYMY: [= K3, Mo, Pa, Va; = Cimicifuga racemosa (Linnaeus) Nuttall - C, F, FNA, RAB, S, W; >< C. racemosa var. cordifolia (Pursh) Gray - F, misapplied in part; > C. racemosa var. racemosa - F; < C. racemosa - G (also see C. rubifolia); > Actaea racemosa Linnaeus var. racemosa - K1, Z; > Actaea racemosa Linnaeus var. dissecta (A. Gray) J. Compton - K1, Z]
PHENOLOGY: May-Aug
HABITAT: Rich cove forests, other mesic and moderately to very fertile forests.
COMMENTS: Primarily Appalachian: w. MA south to SC and c. GA, but extending e. into the Coastal Plain and west to OH, IN, and MO. Var. dissecta appears to be a sporadically occurring form, apparently always occurring in small numbers associated with typical material; McCoy (2004) reports its collection in NC.
RANGE MAP: Actaea racemosa.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ranunculaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Buttercup Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 62 genera and 2450 species, herbs, shrubs, and vines, primarily of temperate and boreal regions. Classsification of subfamilies and tribes follows Wang et al. (2009). Subfamilies and tribes follow Wang et al. (2009).
REFERENCE: Whittemore & Parfitt in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Keener (1977); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see HYDRASTIDACEAE]
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Actaea L. (Baneberry)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 28 species, perennial herbs, of temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Compton, Culham, & Jury (1998) support the inclusion of Cimicifuga in Actaea, based on morphologic and molecular analyses.
REFERENCE: Ford in FNA (1997); Ramsey in FNA (1997); Compton, Culham, & Jury (1998)=Z; Park & Lee 1996); Ramsey (1987, 1988); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Actaea racemosa in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Actaea racemosa in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Actaea racemosa in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Actaea racemosa in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Actaea racemosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Actaea racemosa

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 9840
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 19494

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16 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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