Plant Index


 
 
 

Oxydendrum arboreum

Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC.

sourwood, sorrel-tree

Oxydendrum arboreum (Sourwood)
Image ID: 15950
Image by: Sorrie, Bruce A.
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: OXAR
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Oxydendrum arboreum
Include in WOTAS: 0
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-12-01

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: OXYDE
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Oxydendrum
GENUS AUTHORITY: DC.
GENUS COMMON: Sourwood
GENUS SUMMARY: A monotypic genus, a tree, of se. North America. The genus Oxydendrum is isolated ... among the Ericaceae, apparently with no close relatives (Wood 1961
GENUS IDENTIFICATION:
GENUS REFERENCES: Judd in FNA (2009); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: ERICAC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Ericaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Heath Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
FAMILY REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO:
STEMS: Pith continuous. Young twigs (1-year-old or less) brown or green or olive-green or orange or red or reddish-brown or yellow-green, glabrous or glabrate, puberulent. Twigs (2–4 years old) glabrous. Leaf scars half-round or shield-shaped or triangular, bundle scars 1 per leaf scar, stipule scars absent. Bark of mature trunks checkered or furrowed or ridged. Buds axillary, red or reddish-brown, 1–3.2 mm long, conic or globose, blunt or sharp, bud scales imbricate.
LEAVES: Leaves deciduous, simple, petiolate, alternate, 8–20 cm long, 2–7.5 cm wide, elliptic or lanceolate or oblong, leaf margins entire or serrate or serrulate or ciliate, leaf apices acuminate, leaf bases cuneate or rounded. Leaf upper surface green, glabrous or glabrate. Leaf lower surface green, glabrous or glabrate or pubescent, puberulent or strigose. Leaf venation pinnate. Petioles 0.7–2.5 cm long, pubescent, puberulent. Stipules absent.
INFLORESCENCE: Inflorescences axillary or terminal, panicles or racemes, flowers stalked.
FLOWERS: Flowers bisexual. Perianth. Calyx radially symmetric, synsepalous. Sepals 5 per flower, calyx tubes 1–1.5 mm long, spreading or ascending, deltoid or ovate, sepal apices acute, pubescent, puberulent, persistent. Corolla radially symmetric, urceolate, sympetalous. Petals 5 per flower, corolla tubes 5–9 mm long, spreading or ascending, cream or white, pubescent, caducous. Androecium. Stamens 10 per flower. Gynoecium. Ovaries superior, pistils 1 per flower. Gynoecium syncarpous, 5 carpels per flower, styles 1 per pistil, placentation axile.
FRUITS: Fruits capsules, 0.5–1.3 cm long, gray, fruit maturation 1 years.
COMMENTS: Leaves have a sour taste; clusters of empty capsules often persist on the trees into the winter; trunk often leans strongly.
HEIGHT: to 30 feet or more

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Shrub, Tree

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY: Simple
LEAF RETENTION: Deciduous

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: May or June or July.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Creamy white flowers
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x

FRUITING PERIOD: Sep-Oct.

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Bottomlands, Dry forests
NATIVE RANGE: eastern United States

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: Sourwood is a beautiful SE native tree that offers four-season interest in the landscape. Its leaves are soft green through the summer, then turn scarlet in the fall. It bears many small creamy-white flowers in the summer. Their nectar produces a fine, dark honey. Its little urn-shaped capsules persist well into the winter. The bark of mature sourwood trees develops handsome, craggy ridges. This species makes a fine small specimen tree for open areas or the edges of woods. Full sun is ideal for the best flowering and fall color.

Bloom Table Text:

NCBG Location:

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 5
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 9
GERMINATION CODE:
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Bird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
144 2010-0059 2010-11-29 145 View
2713 1987-0187 View
3735 1991-0430 View
4564 1992-0720 View
4890 1995-0008 View
5610 1995-0734 View
6218 1995-1350 View
6703 1996-0357 View
6886 1998-0092 View
8449 2005-0523 2005-12-20 View
8741 2006-0492 2006-11-30 View
9297 2020-0036 2021-01-11 0 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
145 HORT Lee View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
281 144 101 Liloia 2011-02-01 View
282 144 46 Liloia 2011-10-24 View
283 144 14 NCBG staff 2011-03-10 View
4523 2713 8 NCBG staff 1979-06-11 View
6042 3735 199 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
6893 4564 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
7308 4890 202 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
8124 5610 204 NCBG staff 1993-01-01 View
8873 6218 2 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
9468 6703 8 NCBG staff 1996-03-28 View
9748 6886 160 NCBG staff 1998-02-27 View
11979 8741 81 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
12430 9297 153 MacIntyre 2020-12-11 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: OXAR
USDA Common Name: Sourwood
Native Status: L48 (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, WV)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Tree, Shrub

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU UPL FACU FACU

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Oxydendrum arboreum
COMMON NAME: Sourwood, Sorrel-tree
SYNONYMY: [= C, F, FNA, G, K, Il, L, Pa, RAB, S, Va, W, WH3, WV]
PHENOLOGY: Jun-Jul; Sep-Oct.
HABITAT: Mesic to xeric deciduous forests, especially dry-mesic to xeric oak-hickory and oak-pine forests, and also often in sandhill/pocosin ecotones.
COMMENTS: Se. and sw. PA west to IL, south to n. FL and se. and c. LA. It is an especially characteristic understory tree of upland forests of the Piedmont and lower Mountains. The bark is dark grayish-brown and fairly deeply furrowed; the tree often has a characteristic lean (toward a former canopy light-gap). The finely serrate, elliptic leaves are distinctive, with the sour taste of garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella), or wood sorrel (Oxalis).
RANGE MAP: Oxydendrum arboreum.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ericaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Heath Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 107-124 genera and 3400-4100 species, primarily shrubs, small trees, and subshrubs, nearly cosmopolitan. The Ericaceae is very important in our area, which is one of the north temperate centers of diversity for the Ericaceae, with a great diversity of genera and species, many of them rather narrowly endemic. Along with Quercus and Pinus, various members of this family are dominant in much of our landscape.
REFERENCE: Tucker in FNA (2009); Gillespie & Kron (2010, 2013); Kron et al. (2002); Wood (1961); Judd & Kron (1993); Kron & Chase (1993); Luteyn et al. (1996)=L; Dorr & Barrie (1993); Cullings & Hileman (1997); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Oxydendrum DC. (Sourwood)
SUMMARY: A monotypic genus, a tree, of se. North America. The genus Oxydendrum is isolated ... among the Ericaceae, apparently with no close relatives (Wood 1961
REFERENCE: Judd in FNA (2009); Stevens et al. in Kubitzki (2004).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Oxydendrum arboreum in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Oxydendrum arboreum in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Oxydendrum arboreum in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Oxydendrum arboreum in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Oxydendrum arboreum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Oxydendrum arboreum

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 15950
ID IMAGE2: 15949
ID IMAGE3: 15954

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13 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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