Plant Index


 
 
 

Aquilegia canadensis

Aquilegia canadensis L.

eastern columbine, red columbine, canada columbine

Synonym(s): Aquilegia australis, Aquilegia canadensis var. australis, Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea, Aquilegia canadensis var. eminens, Aquilegia canadensis var. hybrida, Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula, Aquilegia coccinea, Aquilegia latiuscula, Aquilegia phoenicantha
Aquilegia canadensis (Eastern Columbine)
Image ID: 23404
Image by: Ware, Richard & Teresa
Image Collection: NCBG Digital Library

PLANT INDEX

ID_PLANT: AQCA
SCIENTIFIC NAME: Aquilegia canadensis
Include in WOTAS: 1
Publish to Web: 1
Last Modified: 2019-02-14

GENUS INDEX

GENUS CODE: AQUIL
GENUS SCIENTIFIC: Aquilegia
GENUS AUTHORITY: L.
GENUS COMMON: Columbine
GENUS SUMMARY: A genus of about 80 species, perennial herbs, of the Northern Hemisphere.
GENUS IDENTIFICATION: Identification notes: When in leaf, somewhat easily mistaken for Thalictrum or Enemion; look for old fruits.
GENUS REFERENCES: Whittemore in FNA (1997); Munz (1946)=Z; Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

FAMILY INDEX

FAMILY CODE: RANUNC
FAMILY SCIENTIFIC: Ranunculaceae
FAMILY AUTHORITY: A.L. de Jussieu 1789
FAMILY COMMON: Buttercup Family
FAMILY SUMMARY: A family of about 62 genera and 2450 species, herbs, shrubs, and vines, primarily of temperate and boreal regions. Classsification of subfamilies and tribes follows Wang et al. (2009). Subfamilies and tribes follow Wang et al. (2009).
FAMILY REFERENCE: Whittemore & Parfitt in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Keener (1977); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see HYDRASTIDACEAE]

NCBG DESCRIPTIVES

INTRO: Erect perennial found in a variety of moist to dry habitats, including forests, woodlands and rock outcrops (often on calcareous or mafic soils).
STEMS: Stems slender, branched, smooth or hairy.
LEAVES: Leaves basal and alternate on stem, petiolate, divided into 3 leaflets to 1 1/2 in. long and wide, with each leaflet divided again into 3 lobed or toothed leaflets; white-waxy coating on underside.
INFLORESCENCE:
FLOWERS: Flowers in an open panicle, nodding on slender stalks; red and yellow, about 1 in. long, turned upside down so that the long spur at the base of each of 5 red petals points upward and the inner yellow parts point down; yellow stamens protrude and dangle.
FRUITS: Fruit a narrow, 5-parted follicle with ascending-spreading persistent styles.
COMMENTS: Visited by ruby-throated hummingbirds and some long-tongued bumblebees.
HEIGHT: 1-3 ft.

DURATION: Perennial
HABIT: Herb

LEAF ARRANGEMENT: Alternate
LEAF COMPLEXITY:
LEAF RETENTION: Semi-evergreen

FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMMETRY: Radial (Actinomorphic)
BLOOM TIME: February-June
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
x x x x x x

BLOOM COLOR: Red and yellow
White Red Pink Orange Yellow Green Blue Lavender Purple Violet Brown Not Applicable
x x x

FRUITING PERIOD:

DISTRIBUTION
HABITAT TYPE: Dry forests, Moist forests, Outcrops and glades
NATIVE RANGE: eastern North America

HORTICULTURAL
Plant Sale Text: This southeastern native perennial is easy to grow. The pale red and yellow flowers are borne above the foliage on loosely branched stalks. The pendant flowers are a favorite nectar source of hummingbirds. Eastern columbine is a showy addition to the garden whether planted in small groups or masses. It is an excellent choice for naturalizing as it often seeds in. And it supports up to 12 species of lepidoptera. Eastern columbine also makes an excellent cut flower. 1987 N.C. Wildflower of the Year.

Bloom Table Text: Eastern columbine is a perennial wildflower native to North Carolina. Aquilegia blooms in mid-spring and has a tendency to self-sow its seeds during the reproductive stage. Its flowers have red and yellow tubular petals with curved, knobbed spurs. The red color of the flower attracts insects and hummingbirds, whose long tongues can reach the nectar at the base of the long spurs. They were said to resemble the talons of an eagle (aquila in Latin) or a circle of doves (columba in Latin) drinking around a fountain. Eastern columbine also makes an excellent cut flower. 1987 N.C. Wildflower of the Year.

NCBG Location: Found throughout NCBG Landscapes.

Cultural Notes:

SOIL MOISTURE: Dry, Average
LIGHT EXPOSURE: Sun, Part Shade, Shade
MINIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 3
MAXIMUM HARDINESS ZONE: 8
GERMINATION CODE: 2
WILDLIFE VALUE: Bee Friendly, Butterfly Friendly, Hummingbird Friendly
DEER RESISTANCE:

GRIM ACCESSIONS

acc_id acc_num acc_dt coll_id Action
2048 1986-1842 View
2257 1986-2082 View
2486 1986-2341 View
4256 1992-0412 View
7611 2000-0374 2000-11-20 0 View
9254 2019-0013 2019-11-11 0 View


GRIM COLLECTIONS

Coll_id Project Collection date Collector Action
1759 HORT 2005-01-01 Heiney View
1802 HORT 2006-05-01 Bryan View
1995 NPMD 2020-05-25 Adams View


GRIM PLANTINGS

plt_num acc_id loc_num pers_num inst_dt Action
3320 2048 187 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
3321 2048 189 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
3322 2048 11 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3323 2048 73 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3324 2048 74 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3325 2048 75 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3326 2048 76 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3327 2048 78 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3328 2048 79 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3329 2048 80 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
3924 2257 94 NCBG staff 1967-12-31 View
4228 2486 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4229 2486 27 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
4230 2486 142 Liloia 1986-12-31 View
4231 2486 143 NCBG staff 1986-12-31 View
6584 4256 200 NCBG staff 1993-03-01 View
10729 7611 146 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10730 7611 9 NCBG staff 1989-11-11 View
10731 7611 27 NCBG staff 1989-11-11 View
10732 7611 65 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10733 7611 66 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10734 7611 67 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10735 7611 68 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10736 7611 72 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10737 7611 82 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10738 7611 206 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10739 7611 137 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10740 7611 138 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10741 7611 139 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10742 7611 140 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
10743 7611 205 NCBG staff 0000-00-00 View
10744 7611 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
10745 7611 2 NCBG staff 1992-01-01 View
10746 7611 8 NCBG staff 1978-11-01 View
12378 9254 119 Briggs 2019-02-25 View
12497 7611 217 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
12498 7611 211 Liloia 0000-00-00 View
12499 7611 207 Liloia 0000-00-00 View

USDA PLANTS DATABASE

USDA Symbol: AQCA
USDA Common Name: Red Columbine
Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Distribution: USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), CAN (MB, NB, ON, QC, SK)
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb

NATIONAL WETLAND INDICATOR STATUS

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FAC FAC FACU FACU FAC

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2016 National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.3 (Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Banks, W.N. Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. 2016. The National Wetland Plant List: 2016 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2016-30: 1-17. Published 28 April 2016. ISSN 2153 733X). Regions: AGCP-Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, AK-Alaska, AW-Arid West, CB-Caribbean, EMP-Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, GP-Great Plains, HI-Hawaii, MW-Midwest, NCNE-Northcentral and Northeast, WMCV-Western Mountains, Valleys & Coast

WEAKLEY FLORA

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Aquilegia canadensis
COMMON NAME: Canada Columbine, Eastern Columbine
SYNONYMY: [= C, FNA, G, K, Mo, Pa, RAB, S, Va, W, WH3; > A. canadensis var. canadensis - F, Z; > A. canadensis var. coccinea (Small) Munz - F, Z; > A. canadensis - S; > A. australis Small - S; > A. coccinea Small - S; > A. canadensis var. australis (Small) Munz - Z]
PHENOLOGY: Mar-Jun.
HABITAT: Forests, woodlands, rock outcrops, especially (though by no means entirely) on calcareous or mafic substrates.
COMMENTS: NS, QC, ON, MB, and SK south to Panhandle FL, s. AL, w. TN, c. AR, and se. OK; disjunct in Edwards Plateau, TX. One of our most familiar wildflowers. Disjunct populations in the deep South, on limestone in sw. GA and FL Panhandle, have been described as A. australis or A. canadensis var. australis; they need additional study.
RANGE MAP: Aquilegia canadensis.png

Key to Map Symbols
ABOUT FAMILY (Weakley Flora)
Ranunculaceae A.L. de Jussieu 1789 (Buttercup Family)
SUMMARY: A family of about 62 genera and 2450 species, herbs, shrubs, and vines, primarily of temperate and boreal regions. Classsification of subfamilies and tribes follows Wang et al. (2009). Subfamilies and tribes follow Wang et al. (2009).
REFERENCE: Whittemore & Parfitt in FNA (1997); Wang et al. (2009); Keener (1977); Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). [also see HYDRASTIDACEAE]
ABOUT GENUS (Weakley Flora)
Aquilegia L. (Columbine)
SUMMARY: A genus of about 80 species, perennial herbs, of the Northern Hemisphere.
REFERENCE: Whittemore in FNA (1997); Munz (1946)=Z; Tamura in Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993).

HERBARIUM RESOURCES

SERNEC: Find Aquilegia canadensis in Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)
UNC SERNEC: Find Aquilegia canadensis in University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Herbarium - Southeast Regional Network of Experts and Collections (if available)

WEB RESOURCES

USDA: Find Aquilegia canadensis in USDA Plants
NPIN: Find Aquilegia canadensis in NPIN Database
FNA: Find Aquilegia canadensis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Aquilegia canadensis

NCBG IMAGE RECORDS

ID IMAGE1: 23404
ID IMAGE2: 0
ID IMAGE3: 23404

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51 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

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